Thursday, December 27, 2007

Questions and Answers

Hi All,

Could you please write the questions and answers for your keywords of your Linguist or Field of Study into the comments section so that I can give you some feedback and your friends can train our Cyber Linguist. Your Linguist or Field of Study must be online by 4th January 2008 the latest.

Thanks,

Tuncer Can

362 comments:

1 – 200 of 362   Newer›   Newest»
Anonymous said...

What is your terminology?
Some of them are deconstruction, logocentrism, phallogocentrism, the metaphysics of presence, arche-writing, difference, trace, supplement, phenomenology, undecidability, decision, hospitality, forgiveness, mourning, gift, possible-impossible aporias

What are your key terms?
Some of them are deconstruction, logocentrism, phallogocentrism, the metaphysics of presence, arche-writing, difference, trace, supplement, phenomenology, undecidability, decision, hospitality, forgiveness, mourning, gift, possible-impossible aporias
What is your theory?
A strategy called "Deconstruction".

What is mourning? (View variations)
I suggest that the so-called 'successful' mourning of the deceased other actually fails - or at least is an unfaithful fidelity – because the other person becomes a part of us, and in this interiorisation their genuine alterity is no longer respected
What is Fors: The Anglish Words of Nicolas Abraham and Maria Torok?
One of my essays..

What is Memoires: for Paul de Man?
One of my articles..

What is Forgiveness? (View variations)
An aporia in regard to whether or not to forgive somebody who has caused us significant suffering or pain

What is Hospitality? (View variations)
A genuine hospitality is not, strictly speaking, a possible scenario. If we contemplate giving up everything that we seek to possess and call our own, then most of us can empathise with just how difficult enacting any absolute hospitality would be.

What is Cosmopolitanism and Forgiveness?
One of my texts..

What is Gift? (View variations)
The notion of the gift contains an implicit demand that the genuine gift must reside outside of the oppositional demands of giving and taking, and beyond any mere self-interest or calculative reasoning


What is possible impossible aporias? (View variations)
Aporia was originally a Greek term meaning puzzle, but it’s come to mean smt more like an impasse or paradox.I argue that the condition of their possibility is alsothe condition of their impossibility

What is Given Time?
One of my texts..

What is Wholly Other? (View variations)
My invocation for the wholly other "to come", is not a call for a fixed or identifiable other of known characteristics, as is arguably the case in the average religious experience. My wholly other is indeterminable and can never actually arrive.


What is messianism? (View variations)
It refers predominantly to the religions of the Messiahs - ie. the Muslim, Judaic and Christian religions. These religions proffer a Messiah of known characteristics, and often one who is expected to arrive at a particular time or place


What is Violence and Metaphysics?
One of my early essays

What is Politics of Friendship?
One of my texts..

What is Adieu to Emmanuel Lévinas?
One of my texts

What is Deconstruction and the Possibility of Justice?
One of my texts..

What is The Gift of Death?
One of my texts..

What is Decision? (View variations)
My that philosophy is also united by my analysis of a similar type of undecidability that is involved in the concept of the decision itself. If you go to the address below, you will find a detailed text for this concept


What is Undecidability? (View variations)
One of my most important attempts to trouble dualisms,or more accurately,to reveal how they are always already troubled.An undecidable,and there are many of them in deconstruction,is something that cannot conform to either polarity of a dichotomy

What is Speech and Phenomena?
It's one of my books

What is Phenomenology? (View variations)
a metaphysics of presence because it unwittingly relies upon the notion of an indivisible self-presence, or in the case of Husserl, the possibility of an exact internal adequation with oneself


What is Supplement? (View variations)
The logic of the supplement is an important aspect of Of Grammatology. A supplement is something that, allegedly secondarily, comes to serve as an aid to something 'original' or ‘natural’


What is Trace? (View variations)
The trace is a rupture within metaphysics, a pattern of incongruities where the metaphysical rubs up against the non-metaphysical

What is Differance? (View variations)
Différance is an attempt to conjoin the differing and deferring aspects involved in arche-writing in a term that itself plays upon the distinction between the audible and the written.

What is Difference?
It's Differance.

What is Arche-writing? (View variations)
A more generalised notion of writing that insists the breach that the written introduces between what is intended to be conveyed and what is actually conveyed,is typical of an originary breach that afflicts everything one may wish to keep sacrosanct.


What is Of Grammatology about?
I attempt to to illustrate that the structure of writing and grammatology are more important than even older than the supposedly pure structure of presence-to-self that is characterised as typical of speech in it.

What is Of Grammatology?
It is one of my books, perhaps the most famous one..

What is the metaphysics of precence? (View variations)
The deconstructive interpretation holds that the entire history of Western philosophy,its language,traditions has emphasized the desire for immediate access to meaning, thus built a metaphysics around the privileging of presence over absence.
One of the fundamental ways ofthinking of the Western philosophical tradition in my consideration.
It's simply "metaphysics".


How could you explain phallogocentrism? (View variations)
In critical theory and deconstruction , phallogocentrism or phallocentrism is a neologism coined by me to refer to the privileging of the masculine (phallus) in the construction of meaning.

How could you define logocentrism?
Logocentrism emphasises the privileged role that logos, or speech, has been accorded in the Western tradition
Logocentrism holds that speech-thought (the logos) is a privileged, ideal, and self-present entity, through which all discourse and meaning are derived. This logocentrism is the primary target of deconstruction.


What is deconstruction?
It's a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves.


Our questions (which are with "View variations" ) are asked in these ways;
What is ...........?
How could you explain .......?
Tell me about ........... .
Can you tell me about ........?
How could you define .....?
What about ........?
How about ...........?

Deniz Yücel 3231050003
Burcu Bökrü 3231050057
Linguist is Jacques Derrida

Anonymous said...

Very good, guys, very good indeed.

tuncer can

Anonymous said...

Hi All,
After training your linguist, could you please send me his LINK (URL), USERNAME and PASSWORD, so I can check it from the website and use it next year. My e-mail is Admin@ingilish.com

Thank you for your good work,

Tuncer Can

Anonymous said...

WHORF some keywords and questions on them
keywords:hopi language,linguistic relativity,linguistic determinsm,strong form,weak form,moderate whorfianism,extreme whorfianism
what do you know about hopi language?,what can you say about language structures, parts of language in hopi?,what is the strong form and the weak form?,what is moderate whorfianism?,what is extreme whorfianism ?,In what ways does moderate whorfianism differ from extreme whorfianism ?, what is linguistic determinism ? what is linguistic relativity ?
ALL QUESTİONS AND ANSWERS

1 What is your full name? My full name is Benjamin Lee Whorf
2 What is your time of birth?
April,24 1897
3 Where were you born? Massachusetts,USA
4 What is your main occupation? I am a chemical engineer
5 Which university did you graduate from and in which year?
I graduated from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1918 with a degree in Chemical engineering.
6 where do you work and in what position?
I work as a fire prevention engineer (inspector) for the Hartford Fire Insurance company
7 Do you have any scientific interests other than your occupation,if so what are they?

I am interested in many other fields other than my engineering work.I am an ameteur biologist,phsicist,theologian,botanist,anthropologist and I academically study in the field of linguistics
8 How did your interest in linguistics start,how did it develop?
I love ciphers and puzzles,my interest in them came from my childhood.And I read a lot and study in many fields.I think all of these leaded to my development of a profound interest in linguistics.Under the influence of the french mystic Fabre D’olivet,himself an ameteur linguist,whose great Project was to find the hidden meanings of the biblical texts and under the influence of my strong background , I began to think and hypothesize my own ideas in liguistics.I also took interest in native american languages and studied them.

9 What kind of studies did you make in the field of linguistics?
I studied American native languages like aztec,mayan and hopi and developed hypotheses on language in the view of my findings.I began a prolific correspondence with noted scholars in anthropology,linguistics,archaelogy ,I tried to convince the readers that I had in fact discovered a new frontier of human inquiry.I enrolled in Yale university in order to study under Sapir.I disseminated my ideas by publishing them both in major scholarly journals and popular forums.My essays and reviews on a wide variety of topics appeared regularly on’ journal main current in modern thought’.My essays ‘science and linguistics’,’linguistics as an exact science’ and ‘linguistics and logics’disseminated my ideas widely.I also gave lecturers at Yale

10Is there anyone who inspired your thoughts?
I was a student of Edward Sapir,he has a strong influence on me.I supported his ideas and taking mainly them into consideration,I developed hypotheses.
11 what is your hypothesis about language ,thought and their relationship ?
The matter is that the 'real world' is to a large extent unconsciously built upon the language habits of the group. . We dissect nature along lines laid down by our own languages. We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe significances as we do, largely because we are parties to an agreement to organize it in this way - an agreement that holds throughout our speech community and is codified in the patterns of our language. .In short terms we can say that the language we speak determines our thought,we perceive the world according to our language.the structure of a language constrains thought in that language, and constrains and influences the culture that uses it.
12 what names are given to your hypothesis,how is it called ?
It is generally known as sapir-whorf hypothesis,because I mainly based my claims upon sapir’s arguments.It is also called whorfian hypothesis




13 which native laguages did you study
I studied american indian languages like aztec,mayan and hopi.
14what do you know about hopi language? In [the] Hopi view, time disappears and space is altered.. At the same time, new concepts and abstractions flow into the picture, taking up the task of describing the universe without reference to such time or space--abstractions for which our language lacks adequate terms. [They] are definitely given either explicitly in words--psychological or metaphysical terms--in the Hopi language, or, even more, are implicit in the very structure and grammar of that language, as well as being observable in Hopi culture and behavior The subjective or manifesting comprises all that we call future, but not merely this; it includes equally and indistinguishably all that we call mental-- or as the Hopi would prefer to say, in the heart.

15 what can you say about language structures, parts of language in hopi?
Every language contains terms that have come to attain cosmic scope of reference, in which is couched the thought of a people, a culture, a civilization, even of an era. Such are our words 'reality, substance, matter, cause," and . . . 'space, time, past, present, future.' Such a term in Hopi is the word often translated 'hope'--tunatya--'it is in the action of hoping, it hopes, it is hoped for, it thinks or is thought of with hope,' etc. Most metaphysical words in Hopi are verbs, not nouns as in European languages. . Hopi, with its preferences for verbs, as contrasted to our own liking for nouns, perpetually turns our propositions about things into propositions about events.

16 what is the strong form and the weak form?
My hypothesis is appreciated in two forms,one is the strong form and the other is the weak form.Because of the broad nature of my statements,it is said that it is difficult to distinguish to how extent whorf believes language determines thought.In the strong form it is supposed that languge heavily determines thought,in the weak form language partly influences thought.
17 what is moderate whorfianism?
It is the view that claims language partly influences thought.
18 what is extreme whorfianism ?
It is a view which claims language strongly emphasizes thought.
19 In what ways does moderate whorfianism differ from extreme whorfianism ?

In moderate whorfianism
- the emphasis is on the potential for thinking to be 'influenced' rather than unavoidably 'determined' by language;
- it is a two-way process, so that 'the kind of language we use' is also influenced by 'the way we see the world';
- any influence is not ascribed only to 'Language' .
emphasis is given to the social context of language use rather than to purely linguistic considerations, such as the social pressure in particular contexts to use language in one way rather than another.

20 what is linguistic determinism ?
In linguistic determinism,we mean that thinking is determined by language.
21 what is linguistic relativity ?
we mean with linguistic relativity that people who speak different languages perceive and think about the world quite differently.I sudied a hopi speaker who lived in new york city and concluded that hopi speakers do not include tense in their sentences and therefore must have a different sense of time than other groups of people.


22 what are the critiques of your hypothesis ?
If the world view and behavior of people are affected so severely by the structure of their language, and languages have different structures, then is cross-cultural communication and understanding a realistic goal for the modern world?. Using the universal languages of law and science, people from all over the world are working together with no major barrier because of differing mother tongues. Important parts of a society are certainly highlighted in the vocabulary of a language. For example, the Eskimos have many words for snow, the Americans for cars and the Norwegians for fish. But does that mean that the other cultures are incapable of perceiving the items which are described with such specific vocabulary elsewhere ?

23 what are the current interpretations of sapir-whorf hypothesis ?
. Hayes et al cites that the Japanese lack a general word for 'water'. Russians have traditionally used two words for 'blue' .. These examples demonstrate that individuals and societies construct reality using language. Chandler and Campbell believe that the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis can be disproven by critically examining translation patterns between languages. Chandler agrees that in literary writing meaning may be lost in translation due to subtle language differences, but he believes that anything can be said in any language. Terwilliger and his supporters believe that it is difficult to critically analyze the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis because Benjamin Whorf was broad in his definitions.
3231050101
www.mycybertwin.com/whorf
http://www.mycybertwin.com/myfaqs.jsp
username:whorf
password:123456

bağdagül anaral 3231050101
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Anonymous said...

3233050007-Lara Boşnakyan (ÇAP)
3232040011-Arev Babahan (ÇAP)

PANINI

(The full stops in front of the sentences points out that the question has more possible answers)

Why were you an important person in the period you lived?
I’m a Sanskrit grammarian. I made so many innovations and I formulated rules of Sanskrit morphology.

What did you do as a Sanskrit grammarian?
I tried to describe Sanskrit grammar. So, I worked on morphology, phonetics and phonology. I also built the structure of Sanskrit language.

What is Sanskrit?
· Sanskrit was the classical literary language of the Indian Hindus.
· It was thought of as the divine language, or language of the gods.

What does "Sanskrit" mean?
"Sanskrit" means "complete" or "perfect"

What is Astadhyayi(or Astaka )?
· It is my major work and I think that it is my most famous and most important work. You can find in this work, the 3959 rules of Sanskrit morphology.
· It means 8 chapters.

Can you give some information about Astadhyayi?
· It consists of eight chapters, each subdivided into quarter chapters. In this work I distinguish between the language of sacred texts and the usual language of communication. Some linguistics considers my work as the earliest work on descriptive linguistics, generative linguistics and the beginning of the linguistics.
· The Ashtadhyayi consists of 3,959 sutras (sutrani) or rules, that I distributed among eight chapters, which are each subdivided into four sections or padas (padani).

Why Astadhyayi is so important?
Because it is the foundational text of the grammar branch, Vyakarana, of Vedanga. Also, it explains the entire Sanskrit grammar in a very scientific manner

What is Vyakarana?
It is the grammar branch of Veganda.

What is Vedanga?
The Vedanga are the six auxiliary disciplines for understanding and traditions of Vedas, which are the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism. Later, six disciplines of Vedangas, developed into independent disciplines, each with its own corpus of Sutras.

What are Sutras?
The Sutras are a form a school of Verdic (related to Verdas) study. You can consider them as rules. Some of the sutras are phrases, while some of them are shorter than words.

How could / did you build the whole structure of Sanskrit language?
I started with about 1700 basic elements like nouns, verbs, vowels, and consonants. Then, I put them into classes. I also explained; the construction of sentences, compound nouns with ordered rules. In a way, I systematized the grammar.

Can you explain your theory?
My grammar describes the entire Sanskrit language in all details with a unity. It consists four parts: Shiva Sutra, Asthadhyayi, Dhatupata and Ganapatha.

What is the principle of your grammar?
I point out that the nouns are derived from verbs. I also categorize Sanskrit copula as a verb.

Can you give more details about Shiva Sutras?
The Shiva Sutras describe a phonemic notational system in the fourteen initial lines preceding the Ashtadhyayi. The notational system introduces different clusters of phonemes that serve special roles in the morphology of Sanskrit. Each cluster, called a pratyāhara ends with a dummy sound called an anubandha, also called IT index.

Can you explain Dhatupata?
It is a lexicon of Sanskrit verbal roots. It consists ten classes.

Can you explain Ganapatha?
The Ganapatha is a list of groups of primitive nominal stems used by the Ashtadhyayi.

Were you influenced by anyone?
Who did influence you for your theory?
The Buddhist nuns influenced me. My work was written after Buddha.

What can you tell about the Backus Normal Form?
My grammar rules, have similarities to The Backus-Naur form which is used to describe modern programming languages.

What do you think about Brahmi numerals?
What is your opinion about Brahmi numerals?
The Brahmi numerals are developed from letters or syllables that I introduced.

What is chandasi?
My grammar defines Classical Sanskrit. I noted a few special rules, marked chandasi ("in the hymns") to account for forms in the Vedic scriptures that had fallen out of use in the spoken language of my time.

What can you tell about Vedic Sanskrit in your time?
It was archaic but still a comprehensive dialect.

What did your brevity lead to?
Why is the contemporary "machine language" similar to your work / your focus of brevity?
My grammar's brevity is reminiscent of machine language.

What are IT markers? Can you explain / give details, explanations about IT markers?
In some sutras, there are capital letters. These capital letters are mata-linguistic symbols. They are called IT makers.

Can we see the effects of your grammar in the present day?
As in Greek grammar, “be” is classified as a verb; some say that I influenced them as well. On the other hand, Naom Chomsky and Ferdinand de Saussure are also influenced from my grammar.

Anonymous said...

3231040107 Albana Bici
3231050127 Gamze Güler
David Crystal
1 What does the term language death refer to?
It is the death of a language.It has the same meaning with the death of a person.A language dies only when the last person who speaks it dies.
2 Could you explain language death with an example?
A linguist Bruce Connell was doing some field work in the Mambila region of Cameroon in 1995.He found a language,Kasabe.It had one speaker,Bogon.Connell returned there a year later for more material but learned that Bogon died taking Kasabe with him.
3 How many languages do exist today in the world?
Well,all the languages in the world have'nt been properly identified and studied.But according to the best estimates,there are 6000 languages at the moment and about half are going to die out in the course of the next century.
4 When does a language face with extinction?
When a language has just a few speakers left and nobody is bothering to pass the language on to the children that language is bound to die out soon.And we can say that if a language has less than 100 speakers,it is not likely to last very long.
5 Are any of the languages in danger of vanishing?
In a survey published in February 1999 there were 51 languages with one speaker left.There were a good 500 languages with less than 100 speakers.96% of the world's languages are spoken by just 4% of the people.So no wonder many are in danger.
6 How much does it take a language to disapper or die out?
It doesn't take a language long to disappear, once the spirit to continue with it leaves its community.Take Aleut,the language of the Aleutian Islands.In 1990 it had 60 speakers,in 1994 44.If that rate of decline continues,it will be gone by 2010.
7 Why are so many languages dying?
There are many reasons such as natural disasters,culturel assimilation or genocide.
8 How can natural disasters be a factor in language extinction?
Small communities in isolated areas can easily by wiped out by earthquakes,floods,hurricanes etc.So after the community,the people who speak a language die;as there are nobody speaking that language now,the language dies with its community as well.
9 How can cultural assimilation affect language death?
Major cultural movements which began 500 years ago and colonialism spread some dominant languages around the world.For example;in Australia English replaced Aboriginal languages.Or in south America, Spanish and Portugues have replaced many others
10 What can be done to prevent languages from dying?
it's too late to do anything to help many languages, where the speakers are too few or too old.But often where languages are seriously endangered, there are things that can be done to give new life to them. The term is revitalisation.
11 What is revitalisation?
A community of an endangered language gets its act together and try to find ways to give life to the language.There needs to be funding to enable courses, materials and teachers to teach the language and linguists to put the language down on paper.
12 What functions does language has?
Language has two important functions:one communicative across localities,and one to built cultural and community solidarity within localities.
13 Will English be a global language?
English has achieved such a broad spread and become the second language of so many people but also there are other important languages that might well come to the fore.
14 How does a language get to be a world language ?
A language achieves a genuinely global status when it developes a special role that is recognized in every country.This role is obvious in countries where large numbers of the people speak it as a mother tongue.
15 Can the ''mother tongue'' concept make a language have world status?
Being a mother tongue cannot give a language such a status.To achieve this a language has to be taken up by other countries around the globe.
16 Why does a language become a world language?
This has little to do whith the number of people who speak it.İt has to do much more with who those speakers are,the closest relation between language dominance and cultural power.
17 Why should we care about language death?
We can learn so much about the others from languages.A language is a source for us to learn about its community.With every language that dies,another precious source of data about the nature of human language faculty is lost and we have only 6000 now
18 Can we save languages?
Of course.Getting linguists into the field, supporting the community with language resources and teachers, getting grammars and dictionaries of the language are just a few things that can be done.
19 Why do people swear?
Swearing has two functions:1physiological function:swearing is a way to ''unclog the heart'',2social function:to get a particular job done.
20 What does the term ''prosodic system'' refer to?
Prosodic system refers to sets of mutually defining phonological features which have an essentially variable relationship to the segmental /verbal items of an utterance as opposed to those features (e.g the vowels)
21 What are some of the prosodic systems recognized?
Some of them are:pitch-direction,pitch-range,loudness,tempo,rhythmicality and pause.
22 Why do you think internet is a linguistic revolution?
Take chat rooms for example.You see on your screen messages coming in from all over the world. If there are 30 people in the room, then you can see 30 different messages.Attending to 30 people in human conversation is impossible but now you can.
23 Is language of internet english?
The evidence is growing that this conclusion was wrong.By the mid-1990s, a widely quoted figure was that about 80% of the Net was in English.But now With the Internet's globalisation, the presence of other languages has steadily risen.
24 What are the languages mostly used in internet?
First major study of language distribution on the Internet, carried out in 1997 showed English well ahead but with several other languages entering the ring, notably German, Japanese, French and Spanish.
25 Is internet multilingual?
Yes it is.I found about 1000 languages having a place on the net.I'd guess that about a quarter of the world's languages - that's about 1500 - have some sort of cyber existence now.
26 What are the difficulties of a multilingual internet?
The biggest problem is with the keyboards.It is hard to use the characters of the keyboard to cope with the alphabetical diversity of the world's languages.
27 What can be done to avoid the keyboard problems with a multilingual internet?
There is a keyboard system called the UNICODE system.It allows the representation on screen of over 65,000 characters. That should be plenty - but the implementation of this system is still in its infancy.
28 Why do we need a science of language?
We need such a science because it has emerged in the last fifty years or so that language is far more complicated in its structure than anyone had previously anticipated.
29 What are the factors that effect the kind of language output?
The factors that effect the kind of language output are :sex,age,intelligence,socio-economical class.
30 Does the child acquire the syntetic structure of its language in an ordered way?
Yes,it does but this does not mean that all children acquire lnguistic structures at exactly the same rate.There are a number of language characteristics which a child from two years nine months to three years three months will be likely to have.
31 What is it a ''deaf voice''?
İt is a voice developed by deaf children after an earlier period of normal babbling
32 What can be a sign of early deafness in children?
There is a typical change in the crying pattern.İt sounds melodically distorted,more screeching and less emotionally differentiated than in normal children.

Anonymous said...

1 What is conversation analysis?

Conversation analysis (commonly abbreviated as CA) is the study of talk in interaction. CA generally attempts to describe the orderliness, structure and sequential patterns of interaction, whether this is institutional (in the school, doctor's surgery, courts or elsewhere) or casual conversation.

2 What were you inspired by when establishing this theory?

I was inspired by ethnomethodology, I developed it in the late 1960s and early 1970s with my close associates Emanuel Schegloff and Gail Jefferson.

3 When did you develop CA?

I developed it in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

4 What was your starting point?

I became interested in the structure of conversation while working at a suicide counseling hotline in Los Angeles in the 1960s. The calls to the hotline were recorded, and I was able to gain access to the tapes and study them. In the 1960s, prominent linguists like Noam Chomsky believed that conversation was too disorganized to be worthy of any kind of in-depth structural analysis. I strongly disagreed, since I saw structure in every conversation, and developed conversation analysis as a result.

5 Which topics does CA consist of?

I treated such topics as: the organization of person-reference; topic organization and stories in conversation; speaker selection preferences; pre-sequences; the organization of turn-taking; conversational openings and closings; and puns, jokes, stories and repairs in conversation among many other topics.

6 What is your major work?

“Lectures on Conversation”.

7 What is “Lectures on Conversation” about?

It is composed of transcribed lectures held from spring 1964 through to 1972, and comprises about 1200 pages.

8 What is ethnomethodology?

Ethnomethodology (literally, 'the study of a people's (folk) methods') is a sociological discipline which examines the ways in which people make sense of their world, display this understanding to others, and produce the mutually shared social order in which they live.

9 How do you define ethnomethodology?

The organization of talk-in-interaction. More recently known as conversation analysis. I established this approach in collaboration with my colleagues Emanuel Schegloff and Gail Jefferson.

10 What is your interpretation of ethnomethodology in daily life?

A question about an aspect of the social order that recommends, as a method of answering it, that the researcher should seek out members of society who, in their daily lives, are responsible for the maintenance of that aspect of the social order. My original question concerned objects in public places and how it was possible to see that such objects did or did not belong to somebody. I found the answer in the activities of police officers who had to decide whether cars were abandoned. Recommendation: If you want to understand how a particular social order is maintained, or a particular social activity is accomplished, go to the source: the actual people who do the actual work of maintaining and constructing those social structures. In some, many, most cases, a "traditional sociologist" is the last person that you would consult regarding such matters.

11 What is turn-taking organization?

The nature by which a conversation is done in and through turns. Turn-taking is one of the fundamental organizations of conversation. According to CA, the turn-taking system consists of two components: the turn constructional component and the turn allocational component.

12 How does CA define conversation process?
The nature by which a conversation is done in and through turns. Turn-taking is one of the fundamental organizations of conversation. According to CA, the turn-taking system consists of two components: the turn constructional component and the turn allocational component.

13 What is fundamental in a conversation for CA?

The nature by which a conversation is done in and through turns. Turn-taking is one of the fundamental organizations of conversation. According to CA, the turn-taking system consists of two components: the turn constructional component and the turn allocational component.

14 What is one of your major contributions to linguisticcs?

I developed a major new theme: storytelling in converstion, with an attendant focus on topic.

15 Can you describe your book a bit?

Volume I contains the lectures of Fall 1964 through Fall 1967, in which Sacks explores a great variety of topics, from suicide to children's games to Medieval Hell as a nemonic device to pronouns and paradoxes. But two key issues emerge: rules of conversational sequencing - central to the articulation of interaction, and membership categorization devices - central to the social organization of knowledge. This volume culminates in the extensive and formal explication of turn-taking which Sacks delivered in Fall, 1967.
Volume II contains the lectures of Spring 1968 through Spring 1972. Again he touches on a wide range of subjects, such as the poetics of ordinary talk, the integrative function of public tragedy, and pauses in spelling out a word.

16 What is Discursive psychology?

Discursive psychological studies highlight the way people construct versions of 'mental', 'social' and 'material' events and processes as parts of particular practices.

17 What aspect of language did you focus on?

I pioneered extremely detailed studies of the way real people actually used language in the real world.

18 Where did you give lectures?

I lectured at the University of California, Los Angeles and Irvine from 1964-1975.

19 What are your selected works?

'Everyone Has To Lie.', 'Some Technical Considerations of a Dirty Joke', 'A Simplest Systematics for the Organisation of Turn-Taking for Conversation', 'Notes on Police Assessment of Moral Character.'

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Anonymous said...

Sorry, I forgot to say the linguist.It's Harvey SACKS.
3231050005
3231050082

Anonymous said...

3231050028:SİNAN BOZKURT
3231050012:AYŞE BURUK
our linguist is Zellig Sabbetai Harris
What is linguistic universal? (View variations)
A linguistic universal is a statement that is true for all natural languages. For example, All languages have nouns and verbs, or All spoken languages have consonants and vowels. Research in this area of linguistics is closely tied to
linguistic typology, and intends to reveal information about how the human brain processes language. The field was largely pioneered by the linguist Joseph Greenberg, who from a set of some thirty languages derived a set of basic universals, mostly
dealing with syntax.
Tell me about surface structure? (View variations)
In the field of linguistics, specifically in syntax, surface structure (abbreviated 'SS' and often called 'S-structure') refers to the mental representation of a linguistic expression, derived from deep structure by transformational rules.
Surface structure is an abstract syntactic representation of an utterance in the mind of the speaker, in which the elements of the sentence, having undergone transformation from deep structure, are represented structurally in the same linear order in
which they will be pronounced after they pass through phonetic form. Phonetic form (PF) and logical form (LF) are derived from surface structure.
How can you explain deep structure? (View variations)
In linguistics, and especially the study of syntax, the deep structure of a linguistic expression is a theoretical construct that seeks to unify several related structures. For example, the sentences "Pat loves Chris" and "Chris is loved by Pat" mean
roughly the same thing and use similar words. Some linguists, in particular Noam Chomsky,my student, have tried to account for this similarity by positing that these two sentences are distinct surface forms that derive from a common
deep structure.[1]
What is your Major Contributions? (View variations)
ok,I specify them for you;Formal methods of analysis: linguistics as an empirical science, with applications in natural language processing, parsing, and generation.
Theory of science sublanguages: applications in the organization and management of information in medicine, science, and technology.Theory of Information: applications in data processing, information extractioninformation retrieval, knowledge
acquisition and machine learning. Universal theory of language with applications in language comparison and classification, language acquisition, and language evolution.
What is Speech recognition? (View variations)
Speech recognition (in many contexts also known as automatic speech recognition, computer speech recognition or erroneously as voice recognition) is the process of converting a speech signal to a sequence of words in the form of digital data, by
means of an algorithm implemented as a computer program
What is Recursion theory? (View variations)
Recursion theory, also called computability theory, is a branch of mathematical logic that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees. The field has grown to include the study of generalized computability and d
definability. In these areas, recursion theory overlaps with proof theory and effective descriptive set theory.
what is model theory? (View variations)
In mathematics, model theory is the study of (classes of) mathematical structures such as groups, fields, graphs or even models of set theory using tools from mathematical logic. Model theory has close ties to algebra and universal algebra.
What is Proof theory? (View variations)
Proof theory is a branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques. Proofs are typically presented as inductively-defined data structures such as plain lists,
boxed lists, or trees, which are constructed according to the axioms and rules of inference of the logical system. As such, proof theory is syntactic in nature, in contrast to model theory, which is semantic in nature. Together with model theory,
axiomatic set theory, and recursion theory, proof theory is one of the so-called four pillars of the foundations of mathematics.
What is Linguistics? (View variations)
oh,I think it is a little bit easy question for a linguist:)Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. Someone who engages in this study is called a linguist like me.
What is Theoretical linguistics? (View variations)
Theoretical linguistics is the branch of linguistics that is most concerned with developing models of linguistic knowledge. Part of this endeavor involves the search for and explanation of linguistic universals, that is, properties all languages have
in common. The fields that are generally considered the core of theoretical linguistics are syntax, phonology, morphology, and semantics. Although phonetics often informs phonology, it is often excluded from the purview of theoretical linguistics,
along with psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics.
What is generative grammar? (View variations)
In theoretical linguistics, generative grammar refers to a proof-theoretic framework for the study of syntax partially inspired by formal grammar theory and popularized by Noam Chomsky,my student, and more specifically toparticular instantiations of
this general framework, that is, grammatical frameworks adopting as a core assumption that the domain of a grammatical theory is to predict the precise set of sentences which would be considered "grammatical" in a given natural language while
simultaneously predicting any other sentence's grammatical failings (and as such are able to "generate" the languages's grammar).ıf you want more,specify it for me please
What is morpheme? (View variations)
In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit that has semantic meaning. In spoken language, morphemes are composed of phonemes (the smallest linguistically distinctive units of sound), and in written language morphemes are
composed of graphemes (the smallest units of written language).
What is phoneme? (View variations)
In human language, a phoneme is the smallest unit of speech that distinguishes meaning. Phonemes are not the physical segments themselves, but abstractions of them. An example of a phoneme would be the /t/ found in words like tip, stand, writer,
and cat
What is your first book? (View variations)
. My first book (and doctoral thesis) was a grammar and glossary of Phoenician (1936
What is quantum information theory? (View variations)
In quantum mechanics, quantum information is physical information that is held in the "state" of a quantum system. The most popular unit of quantum information is the qubit, a two-state quantum system. However, unlike classical digital states (which
are discrete), a two-state quantum system can actually be in a superposition of the two states at any given time.
What is Information theory? (View variations)
It is the subject of my book whose name is A Theory of Language and Information (1991).information theory is a branch of applied mathematics and engineering involving the quantification of information
Historically, information theory developed to find fundamental limits on compressing and reliably communicating data. Since its inception it has broadened to find applications in statistical inference, networks other than communication Networks
.biology, quantum information theory, data analysis[1], and other areas, although it is still widely used in the study of communication.ıf you want to know details about it,please specify it for me
What is Optimality Theory (OT? (View variations)
Optimality Theory (OT) is a linguistic model originally proposed by the linguists Alan Prince and Paul Smolensky in 1993. OT has been expanded by John J. McCarthy and Alan Prince, beginning in 1993. The main idea of OT is that the observed forms of
language arise from the interaction between conflicting constraints. There are three basic components of the theory. GEN generates the list of possible outputs, or candidates, CON provides the criteria, violable constraints, used to decide between
candidates, and EVAL chooses the optimal candidate. OT assumes that these components are universal. Differences in grammars reflect different rankings of the universal constraint set, CON.
What is social behaviour? (View variations)
social construction or social construct is any institutionalized entity or artifact in a social system "invented" or "constructed" by participants in a particular culture or society that exists because people agree to behave as if it exists or
follow certain conventional rules. One example of a social construct is social status
What is metalanguage? (View variations)
In logic and linguistics, a metalanguage is a language used to make statements about other languages (object languages). Formal syntactic models for the description of grammar, e.g. generative grammar, are a type of metalanguage. More broadly, it can
refer to any terminology or language used to discuss language itself—a written grammar, for example, or a discussion about language use.
What is Semantics? (View variations)
Semantics (Greek sēmantikos, giving signs, significant, symptomatic meaning, from sēma (σῆμα), sign) refers to aspects of meaning, as expressed in language or other systems of signs.Relation between signs and the things they refer to, their denotata
What is syntactic? (View variations)
In linguistics, syntax (from Ancient Greek συν- syn-, “together”, and τάξις táxis, “arrangement”) is the study of the rules that govern the structure of sentences, and which determine their relative grammaticality. The term syntax can also be used to
refer to these rules themselves, as in “the syntax of a language” (e.g. "the syntaxFrench" or "the syntax of Gaelic"). of
What is operator grammar? (View variations)
Operator Grammar is a mathematical theory of human language that explains how language carries information. This theory is the culmination of the life work of me, with major publications toward the end of the last century. Operator Grammar
proposes that each human language is a self-organizing system in which both the syntactic and semantic properties of a word are established purely in relation to other words. Thus, no external system (metalanguage) is required to define the rules of
a language. Instead, these rules are learned through exposure to usage and through participation, as is the case with most social behavior. The theory is consistent with the idea that language evolved gradually, with each successive generation
What is semitic language? (View variations)
The Semitic languages are a family of languages spoken by more than 300 million people across much of the Middle East, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa. They constitute the northeastern subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic languages,
and the only branch of this group spoken in Asia.
What is discourse analysis? (View variations)
the analysis of the occurence of element in the text is applied only in respect to text alone that is,in respect to anything else in the language.As a result of this,we discover the particular interrelations of the morphems of the text
as they occur in that one text;and in so doing we discover something of the structure of the text,of what is being done in it.We may not know just WHAT a text is saying,but we can discover HOW it is saying-What are the patterns of recurrence of its
chief morphemes.Contrary to much of traditional linguistics, discourse analysts not only study language use 'beyond the sentence boundary', but also prefer to analyze 'naturally occurring' language use, and not invented examples.
Is there anyone you inspired? (View variations)
yes I inspired my teachers Sapir and James A. Montgomery and great american linguist Leonard Bloonfield
tell me about your teacher? (View variations)
My teacher is Edward Sapir, American anthropologist-linguist, a leader in American structural linguistics, and one of the creators of what is now called the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. He is arguably the most influential figure in American linguistics,
influencing several generations of linguists across several schools of linguistics.
which linguists were your students? (View variations)
Some of them are Noam Chomsky,Jean-pierre paillet,Naomi sager,Thomas ryckman
what is your key terms? (View variations)
operator grammar,the partial-order constraint,subsets of sentence,subjects-matter sublanguages,linearization.
generative grammar,optimality theory,morphology,phonetics,morphemes,transformational grammar,deep structure,surface structure,phrase structure grammar,operator theory,information theory,
some of them are;Semiticist,:Semiticist,Discourse Analysis,semantics,metalanguage
what is the content of your books? (View variations)
Studies of specific languages,Transformational analysis,Operator Grammar,Linguistic Information.Those are my works'content.
what are your works? (View variations)
The form of Information in science:Anaylsis of an immunology sublanguage(1989),A theory of Language and Information(1991)
Co-occurance and transformation in linguistics structure(1957),Mathematical Structures of language(1968),A Grammar of English on Mathematical Principals(1982)Language and information(1988),
My works are "A Grammar of the Phoenician Language"(1936),"Methods in Descriptive Linguistics(1947,published in 1951 as Methods in Structural Linguistics).

Anonymous said...

3231050014-Nurullah Yüzügüleç
3231050008-Süleyman Ormancı

_Stephen Krashen_

There are basic questions in the account too.Here are just the specific and scientific ones:

1_Can you tell me some about your works and hypothesis? (V. V.)
*-Sure.If you want I can tell about " Second Language Acquisition".
2_What is second language acquisition?
*-SLA is a process by which people can learn another language in addition to their native language.
3_how can you define SLA ?
*-it s concerned with how people learn a second or third or more language.
4_What is your thoughts about SLA?
*-I have 5 hypotheses about it.
5_what are your theses?
*-They are the Acquisition-Learning hypothesis,the Monitor hypothesis,the Natural Order hypothesis,the Input hypothesis,and the Affective Filter hypothesis.
6_Can you explain them,please?
*-of course.which one do you want me to start with?__sure.which one do you wonder most?
7_Could you tell about the Acquisition-Learning hypothesis, please?
*-Allright.Firstly, there are two independence things in SLA,you know it, "acquisition" and "learning".So ,"acquisition" is a subconscious process.It is like the process when we acquired our first language and it requires meaningful interaction.(response 2, response 3)...
8_which one is more important in SLA acquisition or learning?
*-In my opinion, acquisition is more important than leaning.That s why the former is a subconscious process.
9_Could you tell me about "the Monitor hypothesis"?
*-Do you have an idea what it can be?___I try to explain the relationship between acquisition and learning and the influence of the latter on the former.the acquisition system is the utterance initiator, while the learning system performs the role of the 'monitor' or the 'editor'.
10_can you give examples for The Monitor hypothesis ?
*-sure.The 'monitor' acts in a planning, editing and correcting function.The monitor is used only to correct deviations from 'normal' speech and to give speech a more 'polished' appearance.
11_Do all people have the same monitor?
*-Absulately no.There is individual variation among learners.
12_Can you explain the individual variation among language learners with regard to 'monitor' use ?
*-of course.I distinguish the learners that use the 'monitor' all the time (over-users); those who have not learned or who prefer not to use their conscious knowledge (under-users) and those that use the 'monitor' appropriately (optimal users).
13_How can we determine which group we belong to?
*-With the evaluation of your psychological and intelligence it may be determined.
14_Could you tell me about "The Natural Order hypothesis",please?
*-Do you know how you learned your native language?___The acquisition of a language follows a natural order.For example,some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late.
15_Could you tell me about "The Input hypothesis"?
*-I can say that it is about how second language acquisition takes place.It is only concerned with "acquisition".Learner improves and progress the language in a natural order.
16_can you give me some examples about "The Input hypothesis"?
*-Sure.If a learner is at a stage 'i', then acquisition takes place when he/she is exposed to 'Comprehensible Input' that belongs to level 'i + 1'.
17_What is "i+1"?
*-When the acquirer is at level "i" and receive a comprehensible input, acquirer gets level "i+1".So he/she can build language on his current stages of linguistic competence.
18_What is the importance of input?
*-I can say that natural communicative input is the key to designing a syllabus, ensuring in this way that each learner will receive some 'i + 1' input that is appropriate for his/her current stage of linguistic competence.
19_Could you tell me about "The Affective Filter hypothesis" please?
*-hmm.I explain it with you.That is your motivation, self-confidence and anxiety play a facilitative role in your second language acquisition.
20_What are the benefits of them?
*-For example, if you are in high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety, you are more successful in SLA.If these are in a low level,that causes to raise the affective filter and form a 'mental block'.
21_What is "mental block"?
*-It prevents comprehensible input from being used for acquisition.So it affects your acquisition in a bad way.
22_Is speaking important in SLA?
*-It can be said yes.It produces comprehensible input.
23_How can we use your hypotheses in classroom?
*-Well,you have to supply 'comprehensible input' in low anxiety situations, containing messages that students really want to hear and that allows students to produce when they are 'ready'.
24_Have you won any award with your works?
*-Yes.For instance,I won the 1982 Mildenberger Award, given for my book, Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning and the Pimsleur Award.

etc. ....

Anonymous said...

3231050069-Yasemin Kose
3231050073-Fatma Sivri
Our linguist is Jakob Ludwig Carl.

1-Where are you from? (View variations)
I was born on 4 january 1785 in Hanau.
2-What is your nationality?
I'm German.
3-What is your job? (View variations)
I have many fields to deal.First of all,I am a historical linguist,philologist,folklorist.Besides them,I deal with anthropology and lexicography.
4-What is anthropology?
Anthropology is the study of humanity from a comprehensive,holistic approach; the study of humankind from the earliest times to the present, including the four subfields: physical anthropology, archaeology, socio-cultural anthropology and linguistics
5-What is philology?
In a sense, to understand a language, philology seeks to understand the origins of that language, and so it is often defined as "the study of ancient texts and languages."
6-Which schools did you attend?
I went to Cassel Lyceum beginning in the late 1790's.In 1802, I went to the university of Marburg to study Medieval German Literature.
7-What kinds of researches have you done about Medieval German Literature?
I collected all of the old German poems,stories,legends and wrote them down in literal way and published them.
8-Did you have anyone to help you with your researches for collecting the stories?
Actually,I was with my brother ,Wilhelm.We did all of these researches together about our book.So,we are known as Grimm Brothers.
9-What is the name of your book?
It is "Kinder and Housmarchen"
10-What is the translated name of your book in English?
It is "Children's and Household Tales".
11-What is "Children's and Household Tales" about?
It is about stories that I have collected from the places I have visited.
12-How many stories are there in "Children's and Household Tales"?
There are 211 stories.
13-What is your aim of writing "Children's and Household Tales"? (View variations)
My intention was to form a cultural archive of German philology and mythology and I hoped that the work would serve as a resource for the study of German literature and history.
14-What are the names of the popular stories in "Children' s and Household Tales"?
Cindrella,Little Red Riding Hood,The Bremen Town Musicians,Snow White,Hansel and Gretel,Sleeping Beauty.
15-What are the major topics of the stories in "Children' and Household Tales"?
Respect for the king,how a proper lady or gentleman should behave.Also a moral education for children.
16-What is your field of study as an expert?
My field of study is comparative linguistics.
17-What is comparative linguistics?
Comparative linguistics is the study of language history and and the relationship among languages.
18-Do you have any theories,publications about comparative linguistics?
Yes,I am well known for the theory of Grimm's law.
19-What is Grimm's Law?
Grimm's Law is a systematic explanation of how certain consonant sounds evolved in Germanic languages.It accounts for some of the major differences between Germanic languages and other Indo-European languages.
20-What are Germanic languages?
English,Dutch,German,Scandinavian languages are Germanic languages.They form the Germanic language family.
21-What are Indo-European languages?
They're Germanic,Celtic,Italic,Hellenic,Baltic,Slavic,Indic,Iranian.
22-What is the relationship between comparative linguistics and Grimm's law?
Grimm's law focus on consistency and regularity of the correspondence of sounds semantically related words in Germanic and other Indo-European languages.To find these correspondences,we need to study language history,the relationship among languages.
23-Could you specify Grimm's law?
It is about Great Vowel Shift.
24-What is Great Vowel Shift?
Great Vowel Shift includes consonant changes in the words which have the same meaning in Indo-European and Germanic languages.These changes are regular and consistent.
25-What do you mean by consonant changes?
These changes are like that-b-p,d-t,g-k,p-f,k-x(-h)bh-p,dh,d,gh-g.These are like systematic law characters.
26-Could you put consonant changes in a more specific context?
For example,t-d changes in English,Greek,Latin and Sanskrit.In English ten,Latin decem,Greek deca,Sanskrit dasa.All of these words mean 10.
27-Is there any exception in Great Vowel Shift?
Yes, g in English corresponds to h in Latin.For example, guest in English corresponds to hostis in Latin,but they have different meanings.
28-What is your aim at displaying Great Vowel Shift?
Thanks to Great Vowel Shift,I could highlight historical phonological relationship among Germanic and Indo-European languages.
29-What is the common feature of consonant changes in Grimm's law?
The changes that occured were indeed lawlike in that all words containing the relevant phonemes underwent the rules and the changes that occured applied to natural classes of phonomes.
30- What is proto language?
A proto-language is a language which was the common ancestor of related languages that form a language family.
31-What is protoform?
It is the reconstructed form of mother Indo-European languages which are considered as the original form of the words.
32-Could you give an example of protoform?
Brother in English,bhratar in Sanskrit,phrater in Greek,frater in Latin.The protoform of this word is bhrater or bher.
33-What are the daughter languages?
Germanic,Celtic,Italic,Hellenic,Baltic,Slavic,Indic,Iranian.
34-How can you decide that languages such as Germanic,Celtic,Hellenic,Italic are daughter languages?
It is the consistency of the correspondences among the daughter languages of Indo-European family that is decisive in establishing the historical relatedness.
35-Is there any word that has not changed till today?
None of the descendent languages preserves all the phonetic features of parent proto language,that is;none of the daughter languages are identical to proto language.
36-Which language is more conservative in terms of preserving the original consonants?
It is Sanskrit.
37-Can you show me the branch of Indo-European language family?
You can check it from the link that ı give to you.
http://images.google.com.tr/imgres?imgurl=http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00maplinks/overview/indoeuropean/iefamily.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00maplinks/overview/indoeuropean/indoeuropean.html&h=560&w=746
38-Is there anyone else who studied about the set of lawsof consonant changes?
I built my studies upon Erasmus Rask'spublication of sound correspondences of Indo-European languages.However,it is me who is usually given credit for the discovery,because I stressed the systematic lawlike characters of sound changes firstly.
39-How can we find more information about you on TV,cinema,theatre plays or anything else?
Actually,we have a movie called Grimm Brothers directed by Terry Gilliam.Matt Damon and Heat Ledger starred in this film.
http://images.google.com.tr/imgres?imgurl=http://www.happynovisad.co.yu/film/brothers_grimm/brothers_grimm.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.happynovisad.co.yu/film/brothers_grimm.htm&h=425&w=287&sz=33&hl=tr&start=14&tbnid=yrLqsdCpwPgxUM:&tbnh=
40- Do you think that the movie "Grimm Brothers" reflects you objectively?
I think it is a misleading film.We are characterized as two crazy brothers wandering town to town to frighten people with made up stories.
41-How did the stories that you collected affect your linguistic study?
While we were studying on these stories we realized the history which lies hidden in the words of the German language.For this ourpose,we collected the scattered words to determine the relationship between the German language and many other nations.

Anonymous said...

Questions And Answers For Our Cyber Linguist " Herbert Paul GRICE "

1. When did you become a
professor ?

I became a professor in 1967 .

2. Where did you take up your proffessorship at ?

I took my proffessorship up at the University of California , Berkeley .

3. Were there any interruptions in your teaching life ?

Yes , there was a nearly five-year interruption for service in the Royal Navy .

4. Do you have any books ?

Yes , I have . One of them is “ Studies In The Way Of Words (1989) ”. It is the book which has many of my essays and papers .

5. In which study are you well-known ?

I am well-known in the modern study of “ Pragmatics ” .

6. For which are you remembered mainly ?

I am remembered mainly for my contributions to the study of speaker meaning , linguistic meaning and several of the interrelations between these two phenomena . I provided , and developed an analysis of the notion of the linguistic meaning in terms of speaker meaning . Furthermore , in order to explain how non-literal utterances can be understood , I postulated the existence of a general cooperative principle in conversation , as well as certain special maxims of conversation derived from the cooperative principle .

7. Is your theory challenged by anyone ?

Yes , the relevance theory of Dan Sperber and Deirde Wilson challenges my theory of meaning .

8. Is your work examined by someone in detail ?

Yes , my work is examined in detail by Stephen Neale in his work “ Paul Grice And The Philosophy Of Language ” , Linguistics And Philosophy , 1992 .

9. What are your selected writings ?

“ Meaning ” The Philosophical Review , 1957 .
“ Utterer’s Meaning And Intention ” , The Philosophical Review , 1969 .
“ Logic And Conversation ” , 1975 .
“ Studies In The Way Of Words ” , 1989 .
“ The Conception Of Value , His 1979 John Locke Lectures , 1991 .

10. What kind of distinctions did you introduce ?

I distinguished between four kinds of content . These are :

a) Encoded Content : It is the actual meaning attached to certain expressions , arrived at through investigation of definitions and making of literal interpretations .

b) Non-encoded Content : They are those meanings that are understood beyond an analysis of the words themselves , i.e , by looking at the content of speaking , tone of voice , and so on.

c) Truth-conditional Content : They are whatever conditions make an expression true or false .

d) Non-truth conditional Content : They are whatever conditions that do not affect the truth or falsity of an expression .

And , sometimes , expressions do not have a literal interpretation , or they do not have any truth-conditional content , and sometimes , expressions can have both truth-conditional content and encoded content .

11. What can these distinctions explain ?

These distinctions can explain at least 3 different possible varieties of expression :

a)Conventional Implicature : When an expression has encoded content , but does not necessarily have any truth conditions .

b)Conversational Implicature: When an expression does not have encoded content , but does have truth-conditions ( for example , in use of irony ) .

c)Utterances : When an expression has both encoded content and truth conditions .

12. What are Conversational Maxims ?

There are 4 Conversational Maxims . These are :

1) Maxim Of Quality : “ Truth ”
* Do not say what you believe to be false .
* Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence .

2) Maxim Of Quantitiy : “ Information ”
* Make your contribution as informative as is required for the current purposes of the exchange .
* Do not make your contribution more informative than is required .

3) Maxim Of Relation : “ Relevance ”
* Be relevant .

4) Maxim Of Manner : “ Clarity ”
* Avoid obscurity of expression .
* Avoid ambiguity .
* Be brief .
* Be orderly .

13. For which are you best known ?

I am best known for my innovative work in philosophy of language .

14. Did you make other important contributions ?

Yes , I also made contributions to metaphysics , ethics and to the study of Aristotle and Kant .

15. What are “ natural meaning ” and “ non-natural meaning ” ?

In my seminal paper “ Meaning ” which was first published in 1957 I drew a distinction between what I called “ natural meaning ” and what I called “ non-natural meaning ” .

Natural Meaning is the kind of meaning that we are speaking of when we say something like “ These spots mean measles ” or “ A shiny coat in a dog means health ” .

Non-natural Meaning is the kind of meaning that we are speaking of when we say “ These three rings on the bell ( of the bus ) mean that the bus is full ” or “ By saying that the child looked guilty , he meant that the child was in fact guilty .

16. What is “ Cooperative Principle ” ?

It is the principle which calls on a speaker to “ make your conversational contribution such as is required , at the stage at which it occurs , by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged ” . And , my explanation of “ conversational implicature ” begins with my articulation of this principle .

17. Which tradition does your philosophy of language belong to ?

My philisophy of language belongs to a language tradition in philosophy that treats linguistic communication as primarily a matter of a speaker’s using words to enable hearers to recognize the content of their thoughts .

18. Do theorists criticize any aspects of your language concept ?

Yes , some theorists criticize some aspects of my language concepts . Examples : Anita Auramides , John Bira ,Christopher Gauker , Ruth Millikan , Stephen Schiffer , Eike von Sauigny .

19. Which works of you are read most ?

My papers “ Meaning (1957) ” and “ Logic And Conversation (1975) ” are among the most widely reprinted papers in the philosophy of language . In particular , both of them may be found in two popular anthologies , “ Martinich 199” and “ Harnish 1994 ”.

20. How were you known at the beginning of your career ?

I was known to the world at large as “ H. P. Grice . ”

Meryem Simge ÇENGEL 3231050074
Zehra TOK 3231040118

Sezen Arslan said...

Linguist: Lev Vygotsky
SEZEN ARSLAN: 3231050128
ADNAN YILMAZ: 3231050126

KEYWORDS:society,cognition,environment,culture,language and thought,primitive child vs. cultural man,internalization and cultural meditation,weak-mindedness,marxism,socialism and collectivism,sociocultural approach,mental development,culture and knowledge,interaction,sociocultural theory,imitative learning,self-regulate,collaborative learning,cultural differences,the zone of proximal development,constructivist movement, intellectual development, non-egocentric utterance,actual development, potential development, scaffolding, lower mental function, higher mental function, scaffolding learning, marxism and language learning, interpersonal communication, cultural-historical psychological theory, immediate actuality of thought


1) Could you explain your “Social Develpment Theory” briefly ?
The major theme of my theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals.
A second aspect of my theory is the idea that the potential for cognitive development depends upon the "zone of proximal development" (ZPD): a level of development attained when children engage in social behavior. Full development of the ZPD depends upon full social interaction. The range of skill that can be developed with adult guidance or peer collaboration exceeds what can be attained alone.
My theory is an attempt to explain consciousness as the end product of socialization. For example, in the learning of language, our first utterances with peers or adults are for the purpose of communication but once mastered they become internalized and allow "inner speech".

2) What is cultural meditation?

I tried to investigate child development and how this is guided by the role of culture and interpersonal communication. I tried to observe how higher mental functions developed through social interactions with significant people in a child's life, particularly parents, but also other adults. Through these interactions, a child comes to learn the habits of mind of her/his culture, including speech patterns, written language, and other symbolic knowledge through which the child derives meaning and effects a child's construction of his or her knowledge. This key premise is often referred to as cultural mediation. The specific knowledge gained by a child through these interactions also represents the shared knowledge of a culture. This process is known as internalization.

3) What do you mean by “interpersonal communication”, and what are the types of it?
Interpersonal communication is the process of sending and receiving information between two or more people. Communication is interpersonal when the people involved are contacting each other as persons, on a personal level.
This kind of communication is subdivided into dyadic communication, Public speaking, and small-group communication.
Dyadic communication is simply a method of communication that only involves two people such as a telephone conversation or even a set of letters sent to and received from a penpal. In this communication process, sender can immediately receive and evaluate feedback from the receiver. So that, it allows for more specific tailoring of the message and more personal communication than do many of the other media.


4) What is “constructivism” ?
The term refers to the idea that learners construct knowledge for themselves---each learner individually (and socially) constructs meaning---as he or she learns. Constructing meaning is learning; there is no other kind. The dramatic consequences of this view are twofold;
It is necessary to have to focus on the learner in thinking about learning (not on the subject/lesson to be taught):
There is no knowledge independent of the meaning attributed to experience (constructed) by the learner, or community of learners.


5) What is “social constructivism” ?
5) According to me, all fundamental cognitive activities take shape in a matrix of social history and form the products of sociohistorical development (Luria, I 976). That is, cognitive skills and patterns of thinking are not primarily determined by innate factors, but are the products of the activities practiced in the social institutions of the culture in which the individual grows up.
6) Could you give some information about “the zone of proximal development” ?
Zone of proximal development is the difference between the child's capacity to solve problems on his own, and his capacity to solve them with assistance. In other words, the actual developmental level refers to all the functions and activities that a child can perform on his own, independently without the help of anyone else. On the other hand, the zone of proximal development includes all the functions and activities that a child or a learner can perform only with the assistance of someone else.

7) Could you explain the connection between “culture” and “cognition” ?

My theory combines the social environment and cognition. Children acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a culture by interacting with a more knowledgeable person. I believe that social interaction leads to ongoing changes in a child's thought and behavior. Theses thoughts and behaviors would vary between cultures.
Culture makes two sorts of contributions to a child's intellectual development. First, through culture children acquire much of the content of their thinking, that is, their knowledge. Second, the surrounding culture provides a child with the processes or means of their thinking, what I call the tools of intellectual adaptation. In short, according to the social cognition learning model, culture teaches children both what to think and how to think.
Cognitive development results from a dialectical process whereby a child learns through problem-solving experiences shared with someone else, usually a parent or teacher but sometimes a sibling or peer.

7) What is the difference between “lower mental function” and “higher mental function”?

It is quite important to differentiate between our higher and lower mental functions. Lower or elementary functions are genetically inherited; they are our natural mental abilities. In contrast, our higher mental functions develop through social interaction, being socially or culturally mediated.

8) What is “actual development level” ?
Actual development level refers to how much a child can achieve independently without the assistance of a parents, teachers, or peers

9) Could you explain the difference between “the level of actual development” and “potential development” ?
Potential development level is the level a child is able to reach with the assistance of parents, teachers, peers, or experts. Actual development level refers to how much a child can achieve independently without the assistance of parents, teachers or peers.

11) In your theory, you give some information about “primitive child” and “cultural man”. What do you actually mean by them?
The primitive child is a child who has not undergone a cultural development, or one who has attained a relatively low level of that development. If we regard children’s primitiveness in an isolated state as a special kind of underdevelopment, we shall thereby contribute to the proper understanding of the cultural development of behaviour. Under certain conditions the primitive child undergoes a normal cultural development, reaching the intellectual level of a cultural man. The cultural man has undergone a process of cultural development. He has the basic knowledge of behaviors in society. He has mastered his behaviors. However, the primitive child does not have the knowledge of his behaviors in society; therefore, he has to learn them and reach level of cultural man. Indeed, what I mean is the child’s mental development.
12) What are the basic ways of development for a child?
Basically, a child’s development depends on interaction with people and the tools that the culture provides to help form their own view of the world. There are three ways a cultural tool can be passed from one individual to another. The first one is imitative learning, where one person tries to imitate or copy another. The second way is by instructed learning which involves remembering the instructions of a person and then using these instructions to self-regulate. The final way that cultural tools are passed to others is through collaborative learning, which involves a group of peers who strive to understand each other and work together to learn a specific skill.
13) What do you mean by “self-regulate”?
A child learns by the help of others or on their own that actions, behaviors etc have some particular meanings. Then, (s)he practice that action, and some time later (s)he does it on his/her own. This knowledge of that particular action develops after the internalization of the action by the child. In fact, the child gains the mastery of the action after the process of internalization. This process is called self-regulation.
14) What is learning? How are skills and knowledge acquired?
Behavioral options are limited when functioning occurs at an elementary level. Without the learning that occurs as a result of social interaction, without self-awareness or the use of signs and symbols that allow us to think in more complex ways, we would remain slaves to the situation, responding directly to the environment. In contrast, higher mental functions allow us to move from impulsive behavior to instrumental action, Our psychology is mediated by cultural means.
Mediation occurs through the use of tools or signs of a culture. Language and symbolism are used initially to mediate contact with the social environment, then within ourselves. When the cultural artifacts become internalized humans acquire the capacity for higher order thinking.
Learning is a constructivist activity. Cognitive development is a process in which language is a crucial tool for determining how the child will learn how to think because advanced modes of thought are transmitted to the child by means of words. "Prior to mastering his own behavior, the child begins to master his surroundings with the help of speech."
One notion in my theory which has been of great interest to educators is the zone of proximal development. The zone of proximal development is the difference between the child's capacity to solve problems on his own, and his capacity to solve them with assistance.
An essential feature of learning is that it awakens a variety of internal developmental processes that are able to operate only when the child is interacting with people in his environment,
Play is also a factor in acquisition of skills and knowledge. "'In play, a child is always above his average age, above his daily behavior; in play, it is as though he were a head taller than himself."
15) What is “scaffolding learning” ?
The student is seen as constructing an edifice that represents her cognitive abilities. The construction starts from the ground up, on the foundation of what is already known and can be done. The new is built on top of the known.
The teacher has to provide this scaffold to support the construction, which is proceeding from the ground into the atmosphere of the previously unknown. The scaffold is the environment the teacher creates, the instructional support, and the processes and language that are lent to the student in the context of approaching a task and developing the abilities to meet it.

16) What is the importance of “play” in child development?
Through play or child’s game, the child develops abstract meaning separate from the objects in the world which is a critical feature in the development of higher mental functions.





17) Could you give an example to clarify it more?

For instance, a child wants to ride a horse but he cannot. As a child under three, he would perhaps cry and be angry, but around the age of three the child's relationship with the world changes. Henceforth play is such that the explanation for it must always be that it is the imaginary, illusory realization of unrealizable desires. Imagination is a new formation that is not present in the consciousness of the very young child, is totally absent in animals, and represents a specifically human form of conscious activity. Like all functions of consciousness, it originally arises from action.
He wishes to ride a horse but cannot, so he picks up a stick and stands astride of it, thus pretending he is riding a horse. The stick is a pivot. Action according to rules begins to be determined by ideas, not by objects..... It is terribly difficult for a child to sever thought (the meaning of a word) from object. Play is a transitional stage in this direction. At that critical moment when a stick – i.e., an object – becomes a pivot for severing the meaning of horse from a real horse, one of the basic psychological structures determining the child’s relationship to reality is radically altered.
As children get older, their reliance on pivots such as sticks, dolls and other toys diminishes. They have internalized these pivots as imagination and abstract concepts through which they can understand the world. The old adage that children’s play is imagination in action can be reversed: we can say that imagination in adolescents and schoolchildren is play without action.


18) What is the function of language in learning?
For me, language has a particular role in learning and development by acquiring a language, a child is provided the means to think in new ways and gains a new cognitive tool for making sense of the world. Language is used by children as an additional device in solving problems, to overcome impulsive action, to plan a solution before trying it out and to control their own behavior. Nevertheless, the main purpose of language for children is social. They use the language to obtain the help of others and to solve problems. The child, in it process of development, begins to practice the same forms of behavior that other formerly practice with respect to the child. The significance of such behavior is only understood in a social context.
19) What is the role of language?
Language plays a role in cognitive development. Language and culture play essential roles both in human intellectual development and in how humans perceive the world. Human’s linguistic abilities enable them to overcome the natural limitations of their perceptual field by imposing culturally defined sense and meaning on the word.
20) What is the relationship between “marxism” and “language”?
Language is the sign-system which fulfills the communicative and cognitive role in human activity. Marx defines language as the “immediate actuality of thought”:
As old as consciousness, language is practical, real consciousness that exists for other people as well, and therefore does it exist for me; language like consciousness, only arises from the need, the necessity, of intercourse with other people. [German Ideology]

21) What are the origins of “thought” and “language” ?
Like in animals, thought and speech have different roots in humankind, thought being nonverbal and language being nonintellectual in an early stage. But their development lines are not parallel - they cross again and again. At a certain moment around the age of two, the curves of development of thought and speech, until then separate, meet and join to initiate a new form of behavior. That is when thought becomes verbal and speech becomes rational. A child first seems to use language for superficial social interaction, but at some point this language goes underground to become the structure of the child's thinking.
22) What is the relationship between “language” and “thought” ?
To me, a clear understanding of the interrelations between thought and language is necessary for the understanding of intellectual development. Language is not merely an expression of the knowledge the child has acquired. There is a fundamental correspondence between thought and speech in terms of one providing resource to the other; language becoming essential in forming thought and determining personality features. I saw language and the existence of intellect occuring before or without speech. E.g in apes and babies and speech occuring without or before intellect e.g in parrots and babbling infants for children, speech has 2 functions:
1)Non-egocentric utterances are social and communicative.
2)Ego centric utterances are individual and self regulating. The arise when the child is capable of organised reasoning and are similar to the act of counting on one’s fingers-an external that will eventually be internalized.
Thought development is determined by language,.i.e by the tool of thought and by socio-cultural experience of the child.
23) How did your theory influence learning, particularly language learning?
Curriculum--Since children learn much through interaction, curricula should be designed to emphasize interaction between learners and learning tasks.
Instruction--With appropriate adult help, children can often perform tasks that they are incapable of completing on their own. With this in mind, scaffolding--where the adult continually adjusts the level of his or her help in response to the child's level of performance--is an effective form of teaching. Scaffolding not only produces immediate results, but also instills the skills necessary for independent problem solving in the future.
Assessment--Assessment methods must take into account the zone of proximal development. What children can do on their own is their level of actual development and what they can do with help is their level of potential development. Two children might have the same level of actual development, but given the appropriate help from an adult, one might be able to solve many more problems than the other. Assessment methods must target both the level of actual development and the level of potential development.

24) Is there any difference between Krashen’s “Second Language Acquisition Theory” and your theory?
Although I and Krashen come from entirely different backgrounds, the application of our theories to second language teaching produces similarities.
Influence or coincidence, Krashen's input hypothesis resembles Vygotsky's concept of zone of proximal development. According to the input hypothesis, language acquisition takes place during human interaction in an environment of the foreign language when the learner receives language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. For example, if a learner is at a stage 'i', then maximum acquisition takes place when he/she is exposed to 'Comprehensible Input' that belongs to level 'i + 1'.
Krashen's acquisition-learning hypothesis also seems to have been influenced by Vygotsky. Although Vygotsky speaks of internalization of language while Krashen uses the term language acquisition, both are based on a common assumption: interaction with other people. The concept of acquisition as defined by Krashen and its importance in achieving proficiency in foreign languages, can be a perfect application of Vygotsky's view of cognitive development as taking place in the matrix of the person's social history and being a result of it.
25) What is the major difference between Piaget’s view of cognition and yours?

My ideas and theories are often compared to Jean Piaget, especially his cognitive- developmental theory. The conflict between our theories is to explain that development concepts should not be taught until children are in the appropriate developmental stage. Opposing my zone of proximal development, Piaget believes that the most important source of cognition is the children themselves. But I think that the social environment could help the child's cognitive development. The social environment is an important factor which helps the child culturally adapt to new situations when needed. Both I and Piaget have the common goal of finding out how children master ideas and then translate them into speech.
Piaget has found that children act independently on the physical world to discover what it has to offer. I, on the other hand, wrote in Thought and Language that human mental activity is the result of social learning. As children master tasks, they will engage in cooperative dialogues with others, which led me to believe that acquisition of language is the most influential moment in a child's life.
In conclusion, Piaget emphasizes universal cognitive change and my theory leads us to expect highly variable development , depending on the child's cultural experiences to the environment. Piaget's theory emphasizes the natural line, while I favor the cultural line of development.
26) Considering these feral chilren, what can you say about language and cognition?
If cognition is the only the way of developing our knowledge, such as language, religion,rights etc, of the world; then, these feral children should have learned them on their own. Yet, they could not learn these things on their own just as we see. Therefore, I strongly beleieve that our interaction with other people is quite important. Even though these feral children have capacity to speak, they cannot speak, and this is because they are deprieved of interaction with other people. To put it short, this interaction is as much important as cognition.

Anonymous said...

Alparslan ÇOBAN 3231050063
Tolga TÜRKMEN 3231050077

Who is chomsky?
Avram Noam Chomsky ,born December7 1928,is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. He is an Institute Professor and professor emeritus of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Chomsky is credited with the creation of the theory of generative grammar, considered to be one of the most significant contributions to the field of linguistics made in the 20th century. He also helped spark the cognitive revolution in psychology through his review of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, in which he challenged the behaviorist approach to the study of behavior and language dominant in the 1950s. His naturalistic approach to the study of language has affected the philosophy of language and mind. He is also credited with the establishment of the Chomsky hierarchy, a classification of formal languages in terms of their generative power

What is Neurobiology?

Neurobiology is a complex science that studies the brain and nervous systems of humans and other animals. Neurobiology can study the development of the brain in the developing animal or the neurological origin of disease, for example. This field comprises many different methods of study.

Some neurobiology focuses on the molecular structures of the brain and nervous system. Larger complete systems, like the function and structure of the cerebral cortex, may be studied. Scientists can look at biological factors that impact learning or mood, or they may study how early genetic material develops into various areas of the brain.

what do you know about Neuroscience?


Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. Such studies span the structure, function, evolutionary history, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, computational neuroscience and pathology of the nervous system. Traditionally it is seen as a branch of biological sciences. However, recently there has been a surge in the convergence of interest from many allied disciplines, including cognitive and neuro-psychology, computer science, statistics, physics, and medicine. The scope of neuroscience has now broadened to include any systematic scientific experimental and theoretical investigation of the central and peripheral nervous system of biological organisms.


do you know anything about development of language?

Language development is a process that starts early in human life, when a person begins to acquire language by learning it as it is spoken and by mimicry. Children's language development moves from simplicity to complexity. Infants start without language. Yet by four months of age, babies can read lips and discriminate speech sounds.Infants use their bodies, vocal cries and other preverbal vocalizations to communicate their wants, needs and dispositions. Even though most children begin to vocalize and eventually verbalize at various ages and at different rates, they learn their first language without conscious instruction from parents or caretakers. It is a seemingly effortless task that grows increasingly difficult with age. Of course, before any learning can begin, the child must be biologically and socially mature enough.




What is the Corpus Callosum?

The corpus callosum (call o sum) is the largest connective pathway in a human brain. It is made of more than 200 million nerve fibers that connect the left and right sides (hemispheres) of the brain.

If we cut a brain in half down the middle, we would also cut through the fibers of the corpus callosum. When looking at the middle side of one half of the brain, for example, in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the corpus callosum looks like a cross-section of a mushroom cap at the center of the brain.




who is Jean Piaget?

Jean Piaget(August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children, his theory of cognitive development and for his epistemological view called "genetic epistemology". He created in 1955 the International Centre for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva and directed it until 1980. According to Ernst von Glasersfeld, Jean Piaget is "the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing".


The four development stages are described in Piaget's theory as

Sensorimotor stage : from birth to age 2 years (children experience the world through movement and senses and learn object permanence)
Preoperational stage : from ages 2 to 7 (acquisition of motor skills)
Concrete operational stage: from ages 7 to 11 (children begin to think logically about concrete events)
Formal operational stage : after age 11 (development of abstract reasoning).

Developmental psychology

Piaget is without doubt one of the most influential developmental psychologists, influencing not only the work of Lev Vygotsky and of Lawrence Kohlberg but whole generations of eminent academics. Although subjecting his ideas to massive scrutiny led to innumerable improvements and qualifications of his original model and the emergence of a plethora of neo-Piagetian and post-Piagetian variants, Piaget’s original model has proved to be remarkably robust

who is Skinner?

Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904 –1990) Ph.D. was a highly influential American psychologist, author, inventor, advocate for social reform and poet.He was the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at Harvard University from 1958 until retirement in 1974. He invented the operant conditioning chamber, innovated his own philosophy of science called Radical Behaviorism, and founded his own school of experimental research psychology — the experimental analysis of behavior. His analysis of human behavior culminated in his work Verbal Behavior, which has recently seen enormous increase in interest experimentally and in applied settings. He discovered and advanced the rate of response as a dependent variable in psychological research. He invented the cumulative recorder to measure rate of responding as part of his highly influential work on schedules of reinforcement.In a recent survey, Skinner was listed as the most influential psychologist of the 20th century. He was a prolific author, publishing 21 books and 180 articles.


what is verbal beahvior?

Verbal Behavior written by psychologist B.F. Skinner, develops a functional analysis of human behavior encompassing what is traditionally called language, linguistics, or speech. For Skinner, this is a behavior subject to the same controlling variables as any other behavior. The book Verbal Behavior is almost entirely theoretical, involving little experimental research in the work itself.The book Verbal Behavior was an outgrowth of a series of lectures first presented at the University of Minnesota in the early 1940's and developed further in his William James lectures at Harvard in the decade before the book's publication (citation needed). A growing body of research in verbal behavior has occurred since its original publication and is rapidly expanding. This is particularly true in the past decade.


what is discursive analysis?

The objects of discourse analysis—discourse, writing, talk, conversation, communicative event, etc.—are variously defined in terms of coherent sequences of sentences, propositions, speech acts or turns-at-talk. Contrary to much of traditional linguistics, discourse analysts not only study language use 'beyond the sentence boundary', but also prefer to analyze 'naturally occurring' language use, and not invented examples.

Discourse analysis has been taken up in a variety of social science disciplines, including linguistics, anthropology, sociology, cognitive psychology, social psychology, international relations and communication studies, each of which is subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis, and methodologies.


what do you know about The Biological Basis of Language Developmen?

"The principles and rules of grammar are the means by which the forms of language are made to correspond with the universal froms of thought....The structures of every sentence is a lesson in logic."

BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF LANGUAGE

"[H]uman knowledge is organized de facto by linguistic competence through language performance, and our exploration of reality is always mediated by language" (Danchin 29). Most higher vertebrates possess ‘intuitive knowledge’ which occurs as the result of slow evolution of species. However, the ability to create knowledge through language is unique to humans. According to Benjamin Whorf, "language…. is not merely a reproducing instrument from voicing ideas but rather is itself the shaper of ideas…. We dissect nature along lines laid down by language" (Joseph 249). In addition, the development and acquisition of language seems to be related to "complex sequential processing, and the ability to form concepts and to classify a single stimulus in a multiple manner" (Joseph 178)



what is syntax?

In linguistics, syntax is the study of the rules that govern the structure of sentences, and which determine their relative grammaticality. The term syntax can also be used to refer to these rules themselves, as in “the syntax of a language” . Modern research in syntax attempts to describe languages in terms of such rules, and, for many practitioners, to find general rules that apply to all languages. Since the field of syntax attempts to explain grammaticality judgments, and not provide them, it is unconcerned with linguistic prescription.

Though all theories of syntax use humans as their object of study, there are some significant differences in outlook. Many linguists see syntax as a branch of biology, since they conceive syntax as the study of linguistic knowledge as embodied in the human mind/brain. Others take a more Platonistic view, regarding syntax as the study of an abstract formal system.; others also consider grammar as a taxonomical device to reach broad generalizations among languages.

Do you know the orıgın of meanıng and what is semantic?

First of all shortly I can say that the nature of meanıng is related wıth the pictures of words,situation,sententence etc. on human brains.
The Semantics refers to aspects of meaning, as expressed in language or other systems of signs.

As discussed in semiotics, the theory of signs, by the Vienna Circle, particularly in their International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, the field breaks out into three branches:

Semantics: Relation between signs and the things they refer to, their denotata.

Semantics contrasts with syntax, which is the study of the structure of sign systems . When analyzing languages, an analysis can be said to cover both the "syntax and semantics" concerning both the format and meanings of phrases in a language. The term semantics can apply not only to natural languages, such as English, German or Latin, but also to technical languages, such as a computer programming language.

Semanticists generally recognize two sorts of meaning that an expression may have:the relation that the expression, broken down into its constituent parts (signs), has to things and situations in the real world as well as possible worlds, and the relation the signs have to other signs, such as the sorts of mental signs that are conceived of as concepts.


what is Neurolinguistics?

Neurolinguistics is the science concerned with the human brain mechanisms underlying the comprehension, production and abstract knowledge of language, be it spoken, signed or written. As an interdisciplinary endeavor, this field straddles the borders between linguistics, cognitive science, neurobiology and computer science, among others. Researchers are drawn to the field from a variety of backgrounds, bringing along a variety of experimental techniques as well as widely varying theoretical perspectives. Neurolinguistics has highlighted the special role of that part of the human brain known as Broca's area in crucial aspects of human language, namely syntax: the component of language that involves recursion.

What is Cognitive science?


Cognitive science is most simply defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (Luger 1994). It is an interdisciplinary study drawing from relevant fields including psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, anthropology, computer science, biology, and physics. The term cognitive science was coined by Christopher Longuet-Higgins in his 1973 commentary on the Lighthill report, which concerned the then-current state of Artificial Intelligence research. In the same decade, the journal Cognitive Science and the Cognitive Science Society began.


what do you know about eye tracking?


Eye-movement measures represent a unique way to study how people process visual information in real time as they are engaged in a specific task. Eye tracking has been used successfully in a rich collection of studies across numerous disciplines to address visual behaviors in a vast array of cognitive tasks. Examples are reading, piloting of airplanes, chess playing, viewing of art, car driving, and during newspaper layout, Web page design, several aspects of problem-solving, and use of devices such as copy and fax machines. Patterns of eye movements may help us answer questions about visual processes involved in attention, the time course of processing visual information, and how the brain controls the eyes to select, extract, and use visual information in communication (for a review, see Rayner, 1998).


what is the information theory?

Information theory is a branch of applied mathematics and engineering involving the quantification of information. Historically, information theory developed to find fundamental limits on compressing and reliably communicating data. Since its inception it has broadened to find applications in statistical inference, networks other than communication networks, biology, quantum information theory, data analysis[1], and other areas, although it is still widely used in the study of communication.

A key measure of information that comes up in the theory is known as information entropy, which is usually expressed by the average number of bits needed for storage or communication. Intuitively, entropy quantifies the uncertainty involved in a random variable. For example, a fair coin flip will have less entropy than a roll of a die.

Applications of fundamental topics of information theory include lossless data compression (e.g. ZIP files), lossy data compression (e.g. MP3s), and channel coding (e.g. for DSL lines). The field is at the crossroads of mathematics, statistics, computer science, physics, neurobiology, and electrical engineering. Its impact has been crucial to success of the Voyager missions to deep space, the invention of the CD, the feasibility of mobile phones, the development of the Internet, the study of linguistics and of human perception, the understanding of black holes, and numerous other fields. Important sub-fields of information theory are source coding, channel coding, algorithmic complexity theory, algorithmic information theory, and measures of information.

what do you know about non-invasive?

The term non-invasive in medicine has two meanings:

A medical procedure which does not penetrate or break the skin or a body cavity, i.e., it doesn't require an (invasive) incision into the body or the removal of biological tissue.
An abnormal tissue growth, such as a neoplasm or tumor, that doesn't spread (invades) to the surrounding healthy tissue.
For centuries, physicians have employed many simple non-invasive methods based on physical parameters in order to assess body function in health and disease (physical examination and inspection), such as pulse-taking, the auscultation of heart sounds and lung sounds (using the stethoscope), temperature examination (using thermometers), respiratory examination, peripheral vascular examination, oral examination, abdominal examination, external percussion and palpation, blood pressure measurement (using the sphygmomanometer), change in body volumes (using plethysmograph), audiometry, eye examination and many others.

However, since the discovery of the first modern non-invasive techniques based on physical methods, electrocardiography and x-rays, at the end of the 19th century, medical technology has advanced more and more towards non-invasive methods for diagnosis and therapy, such as:

what do you know the nature of the sound?

Sound is a longitudinal, mechanical wave.

Sound can travel through any medium, but it cannot travel through a vacuum. There is no sound in outer space.

Sound is a variation in pressure. A region of increased pressure on a sound wave is called a compression (or condensation). A region of decreased pressure on a sound wave is called a rarefaction (or dilation).

The sources of sound

vibrating solids
rapid expansion or compression (explosions and implositons)
Smooth (laminar) air flow around blunt obstacles may result in the formation of vorticies (the plural of vortex) that snap off or shed with a characteristic frequency. This process is called vortex shedding and is another means by which sound waves are formed. This is how a whistle or flute produces sound. Aslo the aeolian harp effect of singing power lines and fluttering venetian blinds.


do you know language acquisition?

Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. First language acquisition concerns the development of language in children, while second language acquisition focuses on language development in adults as well. Historically, theorists are often divided between emphasising either nature or nurture (see Nature versus nurture) as the most important explanatory factor for acquisition.

One hotly debated issue is whether the biological contribution includes language-specific capacities, often described as universal grammar. For fifty years, linguists Noam Chomsky and the late Eric Lenneberg argued for the hypothesis that children have innate, language-specific abilities that facilitate and constrain language learning.

Anonymous said...

1) What is your name?
My name is Steven Pinker.

2)On which area are you studying ?
I am studying on Cognitive science , psychology and language.

3)What are your key words for your study?
Inflectional morphology, memes,human uniquness, rabbit hole, language competence, Darwinian natural selection, language and general intelligence, the progress of language, , course of language production, sequence of language acquisition, language in terms of principle, components of language learning,people affecting my ideas on language, bootstrapping problem, language, language evolution and language, computational theory of mind, neuroimaging,concept-conception, human language and non-human communication systems, language and cognition, cognitive niche are some of key words.

4) What does the term “rabbit hole” mean?
I am in favor of explaining language in terms of cognitive approaches and think that the rules of language may reveal out how our brains really work.thus,I like hunting sentences and syntax of human language for clues,I call them 'rabbit holes' to the inner world of human brain.My favourite rabbit hole is verbs.
5) Why have you studied verbs for 20 years? What is the importance of inflections? My concentration on the choices of regular and irregular verbs was driven by my sense that it would reveal something about mental computation. The years that I spent studying verbs and what they mean involved a leap of intuition that this would be a way of tapping into human concepts and cognitive framing—in other words, the stuff of thought. The distinction between irregular verbs like bring-brought and regular verbs like walk-walked neatly embody the two processes that make language possible: looking up words in memory, and combining words (or parts of words) according to rules. And by examining verbs I obtain some information about how human brain process language.So verbs apply to my investigation.
6) Could you tell the names of your books?
The names of my books are The Blank Slate, Words and
Rules, How The Mind Works, The Language Instinct, Learnability and Cognition,Language Learnability and Language Development ,The Stuff of Thought, Lexical and Conceptual Semantics, Science and Nature Writing.


7)Could you give some information about your book ‘'The Blank Slate' ?
In my book I mention about the idea of human nature and its moral,emotional,political colorings.I tried to inject calm and rationality into these debates by showing that equality, progress, responsibility, and purpose have nothing to fear from discoveries about rich human nature.

8)Could you mention about 'Words and Rules'?
In my book,I mention about the ways how language works,how children learn mother tongue,the reasons for changes of human language,quirks and irregularities in languages,the place of language residence in brain.I examine language from many aspects.Language comprises a mental dictionary of memorized words and a mental grammar of creative rules. The idea extends beyond language and offers insight into the very nature of the human mind.


9)What about your book 'How the Mind Works'?
In my book I describe the characteristics of mind,such as what it is,how it evolved and how it allows us to see,think,feel,laugh,interact,enjoy the arts.I explain it by means of 'reverse -engineering'.I try to figure out what natural selection designed it to accomplish in the environment in which we evolved.The mind is a system of "organs of computation" that allowed our ancestors to understand and outsmart objects, animals, plants, and each other. I explain many of the imponderables of everyday life. How do "Magic-Eye" 3-D stereograms work? Why is the thought of eating worms disgusting? Why do men challenge each other to duels and murder their ex-wives? Why are children bratty? Why do fools fall in love? Why are we soothed by paintings and music?
10)Could you mention about the topics of your book 'The Language Instinct'? I explain everything you always wanted to know about language: how it works, how children learn it, how it changes, how the brain computes it, how it evolved. As it is understood in my book I mention about everything about languge.I am in favor of explaining language in terms of instinct.
11)Could you describe your book 'Learnability and Cognition' ? In this book I examine how children acquire predicate-argument structures in their language with the help of linguistics and psycholinguistics.At the same time I put forward theories of mental representation, the learning, and the development of verb meaning and verb syntax.
12)Could you put your book “ Language Learnability and Language Development” in a specific context ?
This book is a comprehensive theory of child language acquisition—one that begins with the infant, proceeds step by step according to explicit learning algorithms, mirrors children's development, and ends up with adult grammatical competence.This book provides resource in developmental psycholinguistics.

13)What is the content of ' The Stuff of Thought' This book analyzes how our words relate to thoughts and to the world around us and reveals what this tells us about ourselves, I examine the way we think and communicate.So I show the relationship between thought and language.

14)How do you explain semantics in your book “Lexical and Conceptual Semantics?” I explain it in terms of lexical and conceptual notions .I question how words are represented in the mind and woven into sentences, how children learn how to use words.Lexical semantics provides crucial evidence to psychologists, too, about the innate stuff out of which concepts are made and so I included this in my book as a researcher of language acquisition.

15)Could you give information about your book ' The Best American Science and Nature Writing'? This book provides provocative and is thoroughly enjoyable [collection] from start to finish". Topics are the psychology of suicide terrorism, desperate measures in surgery, the weird world of octopuses, the linguistics of click languages, the worst news about cloning, and much more.

15)How do you explain the development of language competence in humans in terms of evolution?
Changes in brain quantity could lead to changes in brain quality. Human language is made possible by special adaptations of the human mind and body that occurred in the course of human evolution, the shape of the human vocal tract seems to have been modified in evolution for the demands of speech. Our larynxes are low in our throats, and our vocal tracts have a sharp right angle bend that creates two independently-modifiable resonant cavities (the mouth and the pharynx or throat) that defines a large two-dimensional range of vowel sounds .

16)How do you comment on Darwinian natural selection in terms of language acquisition?
All we have argued is that human language, like other specialized biological systems, evolved by natural selection. Our conclusion is based on two facts that we would think would be entirely uncontroversial: language shows signs of complex design for the communication of propositional structures, and the only explanation for the origin of organs with complex design is the process of natural selection.

17)How do you associate language and general intelligence ? The brain mechanisms underlying language are not just those allowing us to be smart in general. Strokes often leave adults with catastrophic losses in language, cognitive problems like retardation, sensory problems like hearing loss, or social though not necessarily impaired in other aspects of intelligence, such as those measured on the nonverbal parts of IQ tests. Similarly, there is an inherited set of syndromes called Specific Language Impairment which is marked by delayed onset of language, difficulties in articulation in childhood, and lasting difficulties in understanding, producing, and judging grammatical sentences.
More interestingly, there are syndromes showing the opposite dissociation, where intact language coexists with severe retardation. These cases show that language development does not depend on fully functioning general intelligence.

18)How does the progress of language occur in humans? Before birth, virtually all the neurons (nerve cells) are formed, and they migrate into their proper locations in the brain. But head size, brain weight, and thickness of the cerebral cortex (gray matter), where the synapses (junctions) subserving mental computation take place, continue to increase rapidly in the year after birth. Long-distance connections (white matter) are not complete until nine months. Metabolic activity in the brain reaches adult levels by nine to ten months, and soon exceeds it, peaking around the age of four. Synapses wither from the age of two through the rest of childhood and into adolescence, when the brain's metabolic rate falls back to adult levels.

19)What is the pace of language learning ability in humans throught life? There seems decline in the ability to learn a language over the lifespan. The language learning circuitry of the brain is more plastic in childhood; children learn or recover language when the left hemisphere of the brain is damaged or even surgically removed (though not quite at normal levels), but comparable damage in an adult usually leads to permanent aphasia .
Many explanations have been advanced for children's superiority:They can exploit the special ways that their mothers talk them, they make errors unself-consciously, they are more motivated to communicate, they like to conform, they are not xenophobic or set in their ways, and they have no first language to interfere.

20)What is the course of language production from beginning?
Language acquisition begins very early in the human lifespan, and begins, logically enough, with the acquisition of a language's sound patterns. The main linguistic accomplishments during the first year of life are control of the speech musculature and sensitivity to the phonetic distinctions used in the parents' language. Around 18 months, language changes in two ways. Vocabulary growth increases; the child begins to learn words at a rate of one every two waking hours, and will keep learning that rate or faster through adolescence And primitive syntax begins, with two-word strings like the following:
More hot. Hi Calico.
Between the late two's and mid-three's, children's language blooms into fluent grammatical conversation rapidly. Sentence length increases steadily, the number of syntactic types increases exponentially, doubling every month, reaching the thousands before the third birthday.

21)Do children all over the world acquire language in the same sequence? Normal children can differ by a year or more in their rate of language development, though the stages they pass through are generally the same regardless of how stretched out or compressed.

22)Is learning a new language a difficult process? It depends on whether you're a child or an adult. If you're a child, then all languages are equally easy. You swiftly acquire free word order, SOV and VSO orders, rich systems of case and agreement, strings of agglutinated suffixes, ergative case marking, and whatever else your language throws at you, with no lag relative to your English-speaking counterparts. Now, if you're an adult, the situation is different, because you're no longer able to pick up the patterns of the language instinctively, and have to think about everything. In that case, aspects of language with lots of irregularity or complex declensional patterns, like the Slavic languages (Russian, Polish, etc.) can be quite hard.
23)What contributes to languge acquisition of children at such an early age so accurately? Several mechanisms are at work.The brain changes after birth, and these maturational changes may govern the onset, rate, and adult decline of language acquisition capacity. General changes in the child's information processing abilities (attention, memory, short-term buffers for acoustic input and articulatory output) could leave their mark as well.

24)How do you explain language in terms of principle? I refer to a branch of theoretical computer science called Learnability Theory and think it is really helpful for explaining language acquisition.
Learnability theory has defined learning as a scenario involving four parts .
Tthese are:
1) A class of languages( the "target" language, to be - attained by the learner/ in the case of children, these are existing and possible human languages)
2)An environment (the information in the world that the learner has to go on in trying to acquire the language/ in the case of children the sentences parents utter, the context, feedback to the child.
3)A learning strategy. The learning strategy is the algorithm that creates the hypotheses and determines whether they are consistent with the input information from the environment/ For children, it is their "language acquisition device."
4) A success criterion. Learners may arrive at a set of hypotheses one of which is correct.

25) What are the components of language learning?
The target of learning, the input, the degree of success, and the learning strategy are four components of language learning.

26)While explaining how children acquire language whose studies did you benefit?
I made use of Chomsky’s theory of Universal Grammer(general properties of natural languages) and Input((aspects of language (from their parents or peers) children have access to)). Elements of input are: Positive evidence (linguistic input to acquire a language), negative evidence(corrections or other forms of feedback), ,motherese (modification of parent’s speech when talking to young children) ,prosody ( pattern of melody, timing, and stress) ,context.

27) What is bootstrapping problem in children’s language acquisition, how can it be avoided ? The child must somehow lift himself up by his bootstraps to get started in formulating a grammar for the language, this is called the "bootstrapping problem. There are solutions such as extracting simple correlations child sets up a massive correlation matrix ,using prosody,using context and semantics(contingency between syntax and semantics in the basic sentences of languages).
28) What are the ways of orginizing grammar? They are:Parameter- setting (rules of grammar specific to a language) and the subset principle ( making generalizations about the parameters of language sticking to only a kind of parameter) , interactions between word meaning and syntax,blocking and inflectional overregularization(suppressing regular rules of grammar and thus help children avoid making overgeneralization) .

29) How could you explain the relation between Language Evolution and Language?Language is a spandrel of any general cognitive learning ability. Language learning is not programming: Parents provide their children with sentences of English, not rules of English. We suggest that natural selection was the programmer.

30) What does computational theory of mind means? The computational theory of mind is the view that the human mind is best conceived as an information processing system very similar to or identical with a digital computer. In other words, thought is a kind of computation performed by a self-reconfigurable hardware (the brain). This view is common in modern cognitive psychology and is one of the foundations of evolutionary psychology.


31)What are some selected theoretical papers of yours?
.Pinker,S. (1987). Thebootstrapping problem in language acquisition.
Pinker,S. (1988) Acomputational theory of the mental imagery medium.
Pinker,S. &Bloom, P. (1990) Natural language and natural selection. Behavioral andBrain Sciences
Pinker,S. (1994) How could a child use verb syntax to learn verb semantics?
Pinker, S. (2005) So how does themind work?

32) What is neuroimaging? We stick people's heads in a brain scanner and see what happens to their brains as they're converting a verb into the past tense, or a noun into the plural, or repeating it.
33)Is our concept of something identical to our conception of it — the things we believe about it?" There are two senses of a concept or a meaning: there's a narrow sense and a wide sense. The narrow sense is what's just in the head; the wide sense is what's in the head and its connection to the world, à la William Shakespeare actually referring to that guy. So a full answer to the question "What is a concept?" depends on what you mean by concept, whether you mean a narrow concept or a wide concept.
34)What is the main difference between human language and non-human communication systems? The main property is compositionality: The use of productive rules of grammar to assemble words into combinations, in which the meaning of the combination can be computed by the meanings of the individual words and the way they are arranged.
35) What is inflectional morphology?: . It attempts to account for how the child realizes that one word is the past tense version of another, and which of two competing past tense candidates is to be retained;that is,the ability to derive walked from walk or mice from mouse.

36) Could you explain Social use of language and evolutionary acceleration? The social value of complex language probably played a profound role in human evolution that is best appreciated by examining the dynamics of cooperative interactions among individuals. As mentioned, humans, probably early on, fell into a lifestyle that depended on extended cooperation for food, safety, nurturance, and reproductive opportunities.
Modularity
Human Uniqueness: except for humans, none appears to have the combinatorial rule system of human language
Language and Thought: learning a language somehow means learning to think in that language. Babies can think before they can talk.
Learning and Innateness

37)How are language and cognition explained by associationism?
Language and cognition have been explained as the product of a homogeneous associative memory structure or alternatively, of a set of genetically determined computational modules in which rules manipulate symbolic representations. Both theories are partly right. Regular verbs walk-walked are computed by a suffixation rule in a neural system for grammatical processing, irregular verbs run-ran are retrieved from an Associative Memory.It describes the brain as a homogeneous network of interconnected units modified by a learning mechanism that records correlations among frequently co-occurring input patterns.

38)What is language?
Language is no different from other complex abilities such as echolocation or stereopsis, and that the only way to explain the origin of such abilities is through the theory of natural selection.
39)What is a "cognitive niche"? A: Our niche in nature, the "cognitive niche," is the ability to understand the world well enough to figure out ways of manipulating it to outsmart other plants and animals.

40)What are memes?
This is called cultural evolution. Some people call the units of cultural evolution memes -- little units of memory or knowledge -- and we've been accumulating them for tens of thousands of years.
41)What are the names of your field studies?
ANALOGICAL REMINDING :seeks to explore a cognitive mechanism underlying the formation of new conceptual metaphors.
INDIRECT SPEECH: tries to understand why people so often veil their threats, bribes, solicitations in innuendo rather than blurting them out explicitly.
INFLECTIONAL MORPHOLOGY: This project focused on inflections such as the past tense and plural to understand the psychology of language.
THE TWINS STUDY AT HARVARD: This Project gathers longitudinal data on the development of words, sentences, and past-tense forms in a large sample of monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal) twins.
NEUROIMAGING AND INTRACRANIAL RECORDING OF LANGUAGE PROCESSES: I have been using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and intracranial encephalography (iEEG) with epilepsy patients to investigate the neural organization of language.


3231050102 Bakiye Büşra Vurucuoğlu
3231050052 Yasemin Ateş

3231050085/93 said...

Zeynep Erişen
H.Sevgi Hazar
Our linguist is Deborah Tannen
Username: deborahtannen
Password: hayef

1)What are your keywords?
*Genderlect theory, cross-cultural communication, report talk vs. rapport talk, public speaking vs. private speaking, metamessage, symmetry vs. hierarchy, independence vs. intimacy

2)What is understanding? (View variations)
*For women seek human connection and intimacy, mutual understanding is really important for them. It creates a sense of community and they think that the most remarkable thing in communication is to be understood by the partner...

3)Is gender the most important factor affecting conversational interaction? (View variations)
*It begins at the beginning.Even if boys and girls grow up in the same house and neighborhood,they grow up in different worlds.Boys tend to play outside in large groups that are hierarchically structured.However girls play in small groups in pairs
http://http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/tannend/videos.htm

4)What is difference between advice and understanding? (View variations)
*In men's talk, talk and emotion sharing is generally advice giving. Advice giver is considered as more knowledgeable, more reasonable, more in control -in a word ONE-UP,I mean!

5)Can you give an example for metamesage?
*For example,a "soothing pat"might reinforce the impression of condescension;a look of great concern mihgt intensify the impression that the other person is in deep trouble

6)What is metamessage? (View variations)
*It is in fact how comments are interpreted.Nonverbal elements such as tone of voice,facial expressions,gestures,mimics,as a whole the body language are the factors of metamessage

7)What is your theory?
*communication and public discourse.


8)What is cooperative overlap?
*When a woman who is listening starts to speak before the other person is finished, she usually does so to add a word of agreement, to show support, or to finish a sentence with what she thinks the speaker will say.

9)What is conflict in a conversation?
*Men regard life as a contest,so men are more comfortable with conflict than women. Also Men have an early warning system that detects signs that they are being told what to do. But conflict is a threat to connection and to be avoided for women.

10)And what about women? (View variations)
*for women talk is for interaction,telling things is a way to show involvement and listening is a way to show interest and caring

11)How do men see "talk"? (View variations)
*For men, talk is for information,so when his wife interrupts his it must be to inform him about something that he needs to know

12)How do you explain order and proposal in conversation?
*With certain men, they feel manipulated and respond resentfully than they would to a straightforward request if they perceive someone is trying to get them to do something indirectly.

13)What is the characteristics of private speaking? (View variations)
*Studies have shown that if women and men talk equally in a group people think the women talked more,but another explanation is that men think women talk a lot because they hear women talking in situations where men wouldn't like on the phone,at home.

14)How are Linguistic and psychological approaches different?
*You can find the answer of this question in one of my related videos on the link.
http://http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/tannend/videos.htm

15)Who talks more, women or men?
*You can find the answer of this question in my video "He Said, She Said: Gender, Language and Communication" on the link.
http://http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/tannend/videos.htm

16)When do women tend to be more indirect than men–and when do men tend to be more indirect than women?
*You can find the answer of this question in one of my related videos on the link.
http://http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/tannend/videos.htm

17)Are conversational styles born or made?
*You can find the answer of this question in one of my video “Deborah Tannen: In Depth” on the link.
http://http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/tannend/videos.htm

18)What about rapport talk? (View variations)
*For most women,the language of conversation is basicly a language of rapport;a way of establishing connections and negotiating relationships.Emphasis's on displaying similiarities and matching experiences.So they fell more comfortable in private talk

19)What got you interested in the subject of communications between genders? (View variations)
*After graduating from college, I lived in Greece for two years where I became involved in cross-cultural communication. I was teaching English as a foreign language; many people who do that are trained in linguistics. That's how I first discovered.

20)What do you mean by public speaking? (View variations)
*It means to preserve independence by exhibiting knowledge and skill,and by holding the center stage through verbal performance such as story telling,joking or importing information

21)What is report talk? (View variations)
*It is another concept to capture men's tendency to public speaking
it is clearly explained by public speaking

22)How did you become a linguist? (View variations)
*The summer I registered for institute in linguistics fell in love with the discipline.Then, I'd found a calling.Linguistics combined my lifelong fascination with talk and my interest in people.Thirty-two years later,I can't imagine any other life.
*I'd always loved words and talk.After my first marriage,I wanted to reclaim my intellectual life.I'd been teaching remedial writing at Lehman College in New York.I registered for a summer institute in linguistics and fell in love with the discipline.

23)So,what is hierachy in a conversation? (View variations)
*It depends.For women,conversation is negotiations for closeness in which people try to seek and give confirmation and support to reach concensus.However for men conversation is n egotiations in which people try to achieve and maintain the upper hand

24)Is there a unifying theme to your 20 academic and popular books?
*Yeah, there are many situations where problems arise between people because conversational styles vary with ethnic, regional, age, class and gender differences. I believe if you understand how it works, you can be more successfull in communication.
*Yes, there is certainly a thread. My writing is about connecting ways of talking to human relationships. My purpose is to show that linguistics has something to offer in understanding and improving relationships.

25)what about asymmetry? (View variations)
*It is to think that people are not the same,they are differently placed in a hierarchy.And the asymmetry of status is what creates contest

26)Where did you graduate from? (View variations)
*I graduated from Hunter College High School, then Harpur College, later Binghamton University and I earned my Ph.D in linguistics from UC Berkeley in 1979. Now I am at Georgetown University, you see?

27)What is symmetry in a conversation? (View variations)
*Symmetry is to feel people equally close to each other,that is clear in expressions of sympathy and concern as evidence of fellow feeling among equals

28)What is your major theoretical contribution to Linguistics?
*It is a poetics of conversation presented in my book Talking Voices which made up of linguistic features such as repetition, dialogue, and imagery in conversational discourse.

29)How does the conversation between women and men happen to be cross-cultural? (View variations)
*well,men grow up in a world in which conversation is often a contest,either to achieve the upper hand or to prevent other people from pushing them around.For women,however,talking is often a way to exchange confirmation and support

30)What is You Just Don't Understand about? (View variations)
*It includes gender differences in communication style with various perspectives. It was on The New York Best-Seller list for nearly four years and also six other nations. It was subsequently translated into 29 languages. Can you get it?

31)What about status and independence? (View variations)
*Generally speaking,many men approach to the world as a place where people try to achieve and maintain status,and a primary means of establishing status is to tell others what to do.For example taking orders is a marker of low status

32)Do you have any book? (View variations)
*I have 20 academic and popular books.the best known ones are general audience books like You Just Don't Understand, You Are Wearing That, The Argument Culture, That's Not What I Meant, Talking From 9 To 5, I Only say This Because I love You.

33)What's the signal of search for connection where and intimacy in a conversation? (View variations)
*well,Intimacy is a key in the world of communication where individuals negotiate complex networks of friendship.It is to minimise differences,try to reach consensus and avoid the appearance of superiority which would highlight differences

34)Who are you? (View variations)
*I am primarily a linguist, and thus my works arguably have more relevance to the furthering of a theoretical understanding of talk and social interaction than they do to the practical improvement of day-to-day relationships.

35)What is genderlect theory?
*It is that women and men have different conversational styles.While women search for "connection and intimacy",men speak and hear "status and independence".This difference can be regarded like "cross-cultural communication

36)Do you have any academic research? (View variations)
*Yes,I have collected my research data about "women and men in conversations"in my book "You Just Don't understand

37)How do you specify your theme in your book “You Just Don't Understand - Women and Men in Conversation”? (View variations)
*Learning about the different though equally valid conversational frequencies men and women are tuned to can help banish the blame and help us truly talk to one another.
*I have studied how the conversational styles of men and women differ.The seemingly senseless misunderstandings that haunt our relationships can in part be explained by the different conversational rules by which men and women play.

Anonymous said...

3231050081 hilal kayıkçı and 3231050083 turgay ekin saıd that....

1.What can you say about the communıcatıon of anımals and
humans?
Anımals often make use of sıgns whıch poınt to what they represent,but they don't use symbols whıch are arbıtrary and conventıonal(dog,hund,chıen,cane,perro...these are symbols that refer to the creature so named,yet each one contaıns nothıng ın ıt that ın anyway ındıcates that creature.)
But language ıs a system of symbols,wıth several levels of organısatıon,at least phonetıcs(the sounds),syntax(the grammar),and semantıcs(the meanıng).so there ıs a colossal dıfference/unequalıty between them and for thıs reason,the effort to understand the physıologıcal mechanısm underlyıng communıcatıon led to a multıplıcıty of theorıes.
2.Theorıes of what?
theorıes about the orıgın of language.
3.Why have so many theorıes put forward?
because the questıon when language orıgınated ın the hıstory of our specıes ıs an ıntrıguıng questıon,to whıch we may never have a complete answer.we can not answer ın any defınıte way.
4.So we can not talk about how people developed speech and language defınıtely,can we?
No,we can not.we can only surely say that 'the world's languages evolved spontaneously.they were not desıgned.'
5.What are the thorıes?
-dıvıne theory
-The natural sounds source
-The oral gestures source
-physıologıcal adaptatıon
-Socıal theorıes
-storıes,myths,and legends(the tower of babel)
-evolutıonary theory
6.What ıs dıvıne theory?
language ıs God's gıft mankınd.ıt ıs a magıc and the power to name all thıngs accordıng to thıs theory.
7.What ıs the Natural Sounds Source Theory?
Thıs ıs another speculatıon on the orıgın of language.The fırst words were ımıtatıons of natural sounds,for example:CUCKOO,SPLASH,BANG,RATTLE,
BUZZ,etc.another ıdea ıs that the orıgınal ounds of language come from crıes of emotıon,i.e.paın,anger and joy,for example:OUCH!
-THE MAMA THEORY
-THE TA-TA THEORY
-THE BOW-WOW THEORY
-THE POOH-POOH THEORY
-THE DING-DONG THEORY
-THE YO-HE-HO THEORY
-THE SING SOG THEORY
-THE HEY YOU! THEORY
-THE HOCUS POCUS THEORY
-THE EUREKA THEORY
8.What ıs bow wow theory?
language began as ımıtatıons of natural sounds..moo,choo-choo,crash,clang,buzz,bang,meow...
Thıs ıs more technıcally refered to as onomatopoeia or echoısm.
9.Can you explaın the pooh-pooh theory?
language began wıth ınteractıons,ınstınctıve ,emotıve crıes such as oh! for surprıse and ouch! for paın.
10.What ıs the dıng-dong theory?
language began ın natural connectıons between sound and meanıng,such as ımıtatıon of physıcal sounds.
11.What ıs Yo-he-ho theory?
language orıgınated ın words based on grunts and groans of exertıon,as ın rhythmıc chants that helped people work together.
12.What ıs the oral gestures source theory?
many of our physıcal gestures,
usıng body, hands and face,are means of nonverbal communıcatıon and are used by modern humans,even wıth theır developed lınguıstıc skıls.ıt proposes an extremely specıfıc connectıon between physıcal and oral gesture ınvolvıng a 'specıalızed pantomıme of the tongue and lıps.'
13.Oh,thıs seems sensıble.the gestural language system may have preceded vocal language,would not ıt?
thıs mıght well be true,but agaın we are faced wıth the problem of understandıng how gestural language came to be supplanted by vocal language,as well as when and why thıs mıght have happened.
14.What about the Physıologıcal Adaptatıon Theory?
Some of our physıcal aspects of humans that make the productıon of speech possıble or easıer are not shared wıth other creatures:Human teeth are uprıght and roughly even ın heıght.Human lıps have an ıntrıcate muscle ınterlacıng.The human mouth ıs relatıvely small,can be opened and closed rapıdly and contaıns a very flexıble tongue.
The human larynx or voıce box ıs specıal as well as the pharynx above the vocal cords can act as a resonator for any sounds produced
the human braın ıs lateralızed and has specıalızed functıons ın each of the two hemıspheres.The functıons that are analytıc,such as tool-usıng and language,are largely confıner to the left hemısphere of the braın for most humans.All languages requıre the organızıng and combınıng of sounds or sıgns ın specıfıc constructıons.
15.What does socıal theorıes offer?
ıt says that..perhaps language was ınvented once,by our earlıest ancestors..perhaps the fırst who had whatever genetıc and physıologıcal propertıes needed to make complex sounds and organıze them ınto strıngs.thıs ıs called monogenesıs.Or perhaphs ıt was ınvented many tımes by many people.Thıs ıs called polygenesıs.
16.Why dıd our ancestors make such a bıg ınvestment ın talkıng?
for orgınızıng hunts,sharıng food,communıcatıng about dıstrıbuted food sources,plannıng warfare and defense,passıng on tool makıng skılls,sharıng ımportant past experıences,establıshıng socıal bonds between ındıvıduals,manıpulatıng potentıal sexual competıtors or mates,carıng for and tranıng young and on and on..
and to be able to thınk better.
17.What ıs the tower of babel??
there are many storıes,myths and legends explaınıng the evolutıon of language and the tower of babel ıs one of them
18.Can you explaın ıt?
thıs ıs an extract from the Genesıs 11:1-9.Scrıpture sımply and confıdently asserts:'now the whole earth had one language and one speech.'When Noah and hıs famıly stepped off the ark,they spoke a sıngle language that was passed on to theır offsprıng.as the populatıon ıncreased,ıt apparently remaıned localızed ın a sıngle geographıcal regıon.Consequently,lıttle or no lınguıstıc varıatıon ensued.But when a generatıon defıantly rejected God's ınstructıons to scatter over the planet,God mıraculously ıntervened and ınıtıated the major language groupıngs of the human race.Thıs actıon forced the populatıon to proceeed wıth God's orıgınal ıntantıon to ınhabıt the Earth by clusterıng accordıng to shared languages.Duursma correctly noted:'The Babel account suggests that several languages came ınto exıstence on that day.It ıs presented as a mıraculous ınterventıon by God'
19.What ıs the Evolutıonary Theory?
the evolutıon of human languge ıs lınked wıth the evolutıon of human braın.we know for example that over roughly the last 5 mılllıon years,there has been a strıkıng ıncrease ın braın sıze,rangıng from about 400 cubıc centımeters ın our dıstant 'homınıd ancestors'to about 1.400 cubıc centımeters ın modern 'homo sapıens'.
20.But I do not thınk the braın sıze can evolute the language on its own,cant't it?
obviously,brain size is only one factor that may have played a role in the evolution;cahanges in the organization and complexity of the brain must also be supposed to have played a crucial role.
21.what are these changes?
3 major reorganizational changes;
reduction of the relative volume of primary visual striate cortex area,with a concomitant relative increase in the volume of posterior parietal cortex,which in humans contains Wernice's area
reorganization of the frontal lobe,mainly involving third inferior frontal convolution,which in humans contains Broca's area
the development of strong cerebral assimetries of a torsional patern consistent with human right handedness(left occipital and right frontal in conjunction)
22.do the genes change and play a role in evolution theory of language?
of course,modifications of genes have a place in this theory as being alive means constant internal and external modification according to external changes.
23.what about the ape starting the all?
an evolutionist,john Mc. Crone put it this way:'it all started with an ape that learned to speak.man's hominid ancestors were doing well enough,even though the world had slipped into the cold grip of ice ages.they had solved a few key problems that had held back the other branches of the ape family such as how to find enough food to keep their rather oversized brains.then man's ancestors happened on the trick of language.suddenly a whole new mental landscape opened up.man became selfaware and selfpossesed.'
24.do you find this reasonable?
this statement starts a new question:'how and why did that first ape learned to speak?'it's easy to assert that it all started with an ape that learned to speak but it's much more difficult to describe how this took place,aespecially in light of our failure to teach apes to speak today.
25.have we already come to our starting point?
yes,as we not only have no concrete idea whwn language began,but also we dont even have an idea of what the earlier stages of language might have been like -even in the most recent stage before the modern era-.
26.but we all know Adam -the first human to talk and communicate-what is your explanation about him?
when God created the first human beings -Adam and Eve -he created them in His own image.this likeness unquestionably included the ability to engage in intelligable speech via human language.in fact God spoke to them from the very beginning of their existence as humans.hence,they possesed the ability to understand verbal communication and to speak themselves.God gave very spesific instructions before the woman was even created.Adam gave names to the animals before the creation of Eve.since both the man and the woman were created on the sixth day,the creation of the man preceded the creation of the woman by only hours so Adam had the ability to speak on the very day that he was brougt into existence.

Anonymous said...

A.Betül Çimen 3231050029
Ferah Toklu 3231050059

Our linguist is Jean Francois Champollion
Key words:ancient Egypt,deciphering hieroglyphics,understanding hieroglyphics,translating any number of Egyptian texts,language of the Coptic Christians,pharaonic period,Oriental languages,Precis du systeme hieroglyphique.

1-When and where were you born?
I was born on december 23rd 1790, in the town of Figeac, France.
2- What is your research about?
I was credited with deciphering hieroglyphics from the Rosetta Stone and thus giving scholars the key to understanding hieroglyphics.
3- How do others refer to you?
I am referred to as the Father of Egyptology.
4- Why they call you as the father of egyptology?
Because I provided the foundation that scholars would need in order to truly understand the ancient Egyptians.
5- Which languages do you speak?
I know Hebrew, Arabic, Syriac, Chaldean and Chinese.
6- What was your suppose?
I read a paper before the Grenoble Academy proposing that the language of the Coptic Christians in contemporary Egypt was actually the same language spoken by the ancient Egyptians. Today, most scholars do, in fact, consider that language to be at least an evolutionary form of the language spoken in the pharaonic period, spiked with the tongues of its foreign invaders such as the Greeks.
7- Where did you study?
My studies continued at the College de France between 1807 and 1809, where I specialized in Oriental languages. I would eventually add Coptic, Ethiopic, Sanskrit, Zend, Pahlevi and Persian to my linguistic repertoire.
8- What did you do when you were eighteen?
By the age of eighteen, I was accepted as a teacher of history and politics at Grenoble in 1809, and in the next year, I earned a doctor of letters. In 1811, I published my Introduction to Egypt Under the Pharaohs and in 1814, Egypt of the Pharaohs, or Researches in Geography, Religion, Language and History of the Egyptians Before the Invasion of Cambyses.
9- Did you publish a book?
Yes, I published the book titled Precis du systeme hieroglyphique, which expanded my earlier work on hieroglyphic translation that would serve as a basis for all later discoveries on the ancient Egyptian text. On January 1st, 1829, he wrote to Dacier, the head of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, from Wadi Halfa in Nubia:
10-What were your next studies about?
I continued to teach history and politics at Grenoble until 1816, and in 1818, I was appointed to a chair in history and geography at the Royal College of Grenoble, a position that I held until 1821. This new position apparently allowed me additional time to do research on the ancient language and the archaeology of ancient Egypt. During this period, I gained the patronage of the French kings, Louis XVIII and Charles X, which allowed me to travel on royally sponsored missions in order to examine museum collections such as those in Turin, Leghorn where I examined the Henry Salt collection which I would later persuade Charles X to purchase for the Louvre, Rome where I studied the obelisk and the papyrus of the Vatican Library, Naples and Florence.
10- When did you go to egypt and what did you study there?
In 1828, I made first and only trip to Egypt to study on ancient egyptian museum.
11- Have you ever married?
Yes, in 1812, I married Rosine Blanc, who would provide me with a daughter, Zoraide.
12- What was your survey about?
I landed in Alexandria in August 1828 and explored both Egypt and Nubia as far as the second cataract. I stayed in Egypt until 1829, with my friend Rosellini, and this was the first systematic survey of the history and geography of Egypt to examine the ancient monuments and their inscriptions after the Napoleonic Description de l'Egypt. In fact, part of the reason for the expedition was to complete the archaeological section of the Description de l'Egypte.
13- How your studies helped other researchers?
my notes and sketches, together with Rosellini's engravings which were finished later, made up some of the first documentary later be used as the basis for the field investigations by such individuals as Karl Richard Lepisus and John Gardner Wilkinson.
14- What did you do after returning back from egypt?
Upon my return to France, I was made a member of the Academie des Inscriptions, and in 1831, a chair in Egyptian history and archaeology was specifically created for me at the College de France. Soon, however, I retired to Quercy, and devoted the last months of my life to the completion and revision of my Egyptian grammar and dictionary
15-What was your goal about linguistic?
my final success resulted from my long years of linguistic study of arcane languages, and others in my field contributed to my ultimate goal.
16-What does deciphering hieroglyphics mean?
It means giving scholars the key to understanding hieroglyphics.
17-What does pharanoic period mean?
It meansusing resources so as to reflect a wide variety of theories and ideas about Egypt's history,particularly its early days.
18-What was your reason for expedition?
The reason for the expedition was to complete the archaeological section of the Description de l'Egypte.
19-Who used your investigations?
Other researchers used as the basis for the field investigations by such individuals as Karl Richard Lepisus and John Gardner Wilkinson.
20-What did you do after retired?
I devoted my life to the completion and revision of my Egyptian grammar and dictionary

Anonymous said...

1-what is Language War?
its the name of my book which is about national issues in our political culture

2-what is the role of language in popular and political culture according to Language War?
you know speculation about the "real" Hillary Clinton ----------ebonics

3-What is marked or unmarked?
In every language I explain "some linguistic forms are said to be "marked", their correlative "unmarked." Unmarked forms are gineric, the standard; marked forms are some variation on that standard. For example, in english, present tense is unmarked, future and past tenses are marked. Masculine is unmarked (mankind, policeman, freshman); feminine is marked (actress, waitress, coed). For the unmarked, dominant members of society, Lakoff argues, "your attributes are invisible, as your role in making things the way they are is not noticeable.

4-What are the differences between women's speechand men's speech?
I depicted a typical female speech style, allegedly characterized by the
use of features such as hesitations, qualifiers, tag questions, empty an
utterance.For example tag questions "are associated with a desire for
confirmation or approval which signals a lack of self-confidence in the
speaker." Also a tag emphazisesthe power of the questioner to force a
response.My description of female speech style was based on my remembered
impressions rather than on any systematic, quantitative observation.women's
speech can be distinguished from that of men in a number of ways, including:
1. Hedges: Phrases like "sort of," "kind of," "it seems like"
2. Empty adjectives: divine, adorable, gorgeous, etc
3. (Super-)Polite forms: "Would you mind…" "Is it o.k if…?" "…if it’s
not too much to ask"
4. Apologize more: "I'm sorry, but I think that…"
5. Speak less frequently
6. Avoid coarse language or expletives
7. Tag questions: "You don't mind eating this, do you?". Subsequent
research has cast some doubt on this proposition
8. Hyper-correct grammar and pronunciation: Use of prestige grammar and
clear articulation
9. Indirect requests: "Wow I'm so thirsty." – really asking for a drink
10. Speak in italics: Use tone to emphasis certain words, e.g., "so",
"very", "quite".

5-What is the Lng and woman's place?
It is my most famous work about women's language in the field of sociolinguistics.

6-What is your politeness principle?
I developed Politeness Principle in which i devise three maxims that are usually followed in interaction. These are : Don't impose, give the receiver options and make the receiver feel good. I stated that these are pramount in good interaction.

7-What are your feminist researches on the relationship between language and gender?
language is fundamental to gender inequality,i pointed to two areas in which inequalities can be found: Language used about women, such as the asymmetries between seemingly parallel terms like master and mistress , and language used by women, which places women in a double bind between being appropriately feminine and being fully human. My central argument that "women's language" expresses powerlessness triggered a controversy that continues to this day.

8-Where do you work and in what position?
I am a professor-linguistics at University of California, Berkeley I have expertise in pragmatics and socio----linguistics branches.

9-What is language?
Language is the means by which we understand the world and the way we
communicate to one another what we believe the world to be like

10-What is the function of language?
Language is often the clearest way of understanding what is going on, what
is working and what isn't working, and we can chart progress by what goes in
and out of language," said Lakoff.

11-how do you define function's features
Language functions serve as a "universal donor" or
medium especially with regard to the other social sciences and specifically,
gender discussions. Language based evidence is one way of making sense of
social changes.

12-do you think words take meanings according to situations, relationships?
exactly that is what i am trying to say. For example; "Democracy" and
"freedom" to us are unequivocally good words and good
concepts. But in many societies "democracy" may suggest "chaos"; "freedom"
may suggest license - things to oppose and stamp out, not to venerate.
again look at that; We live in freedom; our opponents represent oppression

13-Can you give a more specific example about how language changes according to situation?
The absolutes of our public rhetoric, however thrillingly persuasive they
may sound to us (who hardly require persuasion), are likely to fall flat
when directed at a society that interprets current events very differently
than we do. I am not saying that we need to believe these alternative
positions. To understand is not necessarily to agree or to forgive. But we
must give them respectful consideration. Consider, from this perspective,
three favorite current public absolutisms:
We are morally pure and utterly innocent.
In our eyes, perhaps. But, to many in the Arab world, the United States has
killed Iraqi noncombatants and has been implicit in the killings of innocent
Palestinians.

14-what is more distinguishable about language and women's place?
Language and Woman's Place , is widely recognized as having inaugurated feminist research on the relationship between language and gender, touching off a remarkable response among language scholars, feminists, and general readers.

15- how can you explain women's place with language?
Arguing that language is fundamental to gender inequality, I pointed to two areas in which inequalities can be found: Language used about women, such as the asymmetries between seemingly parallel terms like master and mistress , and language used by women, which places women in a double bind between being appropriately feminine and being fully human. Lakoff's central argument that "women's language" expresses powerlessness triggered a controversy that continues to this day.

16-what can you say about language used byh women?
the language used by women (who is more likely--or expected--to say, "Oh dear" and "My goodness"?) and about women (men pass out, but women faint) reflects the way that women are treated and the real-world possibilities open to them.

17-do ypu think that women have the control of language over men?
They do not exactly besides men have that, however, both minorities and women are battling the white men in power for "control of the narrative" and of language itself.

18-how is language and statue related?
the battle for cultural control is a contest over language is rarely real-world turf lost or gained. Instead, she points to the defensive posturing by defenders of the status quo, uncovering the fear of a black, female, gay planet embedded in conservative rhetoric. But I myself fall into the the same "gotcha" tone that i decry in what's been called the "Argument Culture," the increasingly mean, contentious public discourse born of the language war. For example, i open my skillful debunking of a George Will column with this: "A thorough analysis of the sophistries of Will's argument would take us beyond the millennium." Then i diss him for "sneering.

19- what is your field?
Linguistics offers a fresh take on some played-out stories and reanimates those middle-aged warriors feminism and the fight against racism. Even sympathetic listeners tune out overused terms like "patriarchy" and "the Other." Lakoff's use of linguistic terminology and concepts revives the old struggles for equality, like a Moby re-mix of a '60s anthem that's been beaten into background noise by boomer radio.

20-what do you think about cultural control and language itself?
Battle for cultural control is a contest over language"Temporal space is metaphorically equivalent to physical space: You 'give space' to those you respect; you crowd in on people ... you wish to intimidate." Lakoff also notes that questions addressed to Hill more often included "tags," ending in "is that correct?" or "didn't you?" Among its other uses, "a tag emphasizes the power of the questioner to force a response."
21-what do you think about debates.?
i point again and again to examples of misplaced rage: White guys who'd never expressed a political sentiment in their lives suddenly were bewailing the injustice of having to say "Asian"; non-sports fans fiercely defended team names like the Braves and the Redskins. Through the 1990s, new terms to enable bullying and racism seemed to pop up every day, among them "victim art" and "special interests." Lakoff's claim that much is at stake is bolstered by this seemingly endless parade of squabbles. Above all, "The Language War" is a depressing reminder of just how mean-spirited the 1990s were.
22- What is the the role of language in popularand political culture according to The Language War?
You know speculation about the "real" Hillary Clinton; the O.J.
Simpson trial; ebonics; and the Clinton-Lewinsky-Starr scandal: These
national soap operas all pass Robin Tolmach Lakoff's "Undue Attention Test,"
but it's not because Americans are shallow and prurient. Rather,I say in
"The Language War," we studied these stories for clues about our "insoluble
difficulties with race and gender." The stories that pass the Undue
Attention Test,all involved a struggle over "which group ... gets to make
meaning for us all -- to create and define our culture."
23-You wrote a special article in New York Times.What about this article?
It is about nuances of social, cultural and political infighting among
people,especially Iraq and American people.

24-What are the relations between these nuances America – Iraq War?
In times of crisis, government public rhetoric needs to be absolute and
unambiguous. But equally important are voices that remind us of the
complexity of the situation we are in. To suggest that only one form of
public rhetoric can exist, or that only one kind is legitimate, is to
shortchange the people who have to make important decisions in this
democracy: ourselves.
A thriving democracy requires citizens who can handle complexity. We can do
so only if we permit ambivalent voices to reach our ears and our minds.
For instance, they cite President George W. Bush saying: "In this conflict,
there is no neutral ground. If members of any government sponsor outlaws and
killers of innocents, they have become outlaws and murderers themselves."

And, on the other side, they cite an unnamed Massachusetts Institute of
Technology professor as making the following argument: "Imagine the real
suffering and grief of people in other countries. The best way to begin a
war on terrorism might be to look in the mirror."
The differences between these two voices are numerous. But both need to be
heard respectfully if we are to preserve a free and vigorous democracy.
Shutting off equivocal views only makes it harder for us to understand what
democracy - what we are repeatedly told we are fighting for - really means.
Moreover, this struggle is being fought not only by the weapons of war but
in the court of public opinion often called the Arab street, through a
principal organ of Muslim public opinion, the Dubai-based Arab television
station al-Jazeera. If America cannot convince its Muslim allies that our
cause is just, the coalition will fall apart, to our detriment. To this end,
we have dispatched experts in public relations to sell our side. But they
cannot - we cannot - persuade Arabs of the justice of our cause unless we
are able to understand their position and make reference to it.
In our eyes, perhaps. But, to many in the Arab world, the United States has
killed Iraqi noncombatants and has been implicit in the killings of innocent
Palestinians.

25-What are the connections between the politics of language and the language of in the battles of past decade?
I investigate how developments in world media have affected, and
been affected by,
language. Exploring a wide range of topics, from the globalization of
communication to the vocabulary of terrorism and the language used in the
wake of September 11.This reasons are occured py political events which are
terrorism and globalization.
26-What kind of studies do you make in the field of linguistics?
I am interested in the comparative syntax of Latin and English; the
relation between linguistic form and social and psychological context;
language and gender; discourse strategies (e.g. indirectness and
politeness); discourse genres (e.g. psychotherapeutic and courtroom
discourse).
27-Can you explain that your idea is “language as a tool,not as a purpose” ?
Language is the means by which we understand the world and the
way we communicate to one another what we believe the world to be like.
Language functions serve as a "universal donor" or medium. Language is often
the clearest way of understanding what is going on, what is working and what
isn't working, and we can chart progress by what goes in and out of
language.
28-What kinds of implication did you tell in the fourth Provost Distinguished Women Lecture Series in the United States ?
I used my expertise in linguistics to analyze the progress toward
equality of opportunity for all people in the United States.I began MY
lecture by introducing MY basic argument, "redrawing the gender line in the
sand" and then by explaining what linguists have to say about social
changes.

29-What is “It's a Time to Let Discordant Voices Ring”?
It is my article was published in Newdays Newyork.

30-What’s about the article?
three favorite current public absolutisms:
1-We are morally pure and utterly innocent.
In our eyes, perhaps. But, to many in the Arab world, the United States has
killed Iraqi noncombatants and has been implicit in the killings of innocent
Palestinians.
2-We live in freedom; our opponents represent oppression.
"Democracy" and "freedom" to us are unequivocally good words and good
concepts. But in many societies "democracy" may suggest "chaos"; "freedom"
may suggest license - things to oppose and stamp out, not to venerate.
3-We aim to save civilization from their savagery.
Imagine the effect of such rhetoric on members of a culture whose memory
goes back a thousand years to a time when their civilization kept learning
alive during the West's Dark Ages. How dare we, they must think, claim
"civilization" unilaterally for our own? We sometimes minimize the power of
rhetoric - we call it "only rhetoric," "mere words."
But the battle being waged over what kind of language is right for
American public speech, in the present crisis, shows that we all are well
aware of what language can do.
31-what can you say about sexism in language?
women may be less effective than men in competitive environments, even if they are able to perform similarly in noncompetitive environments. In a laboratory experiment we observe, as we increase the competitiveness of the environment, a significant increase in performance for men, but not for women. This results in a significant gender gap in performance in tournaments, while there is no gap when participants are paid accornding to piece rate. This effect is strong when women have to compete against men than in single-sex competitive environments.

Anonymous said...

3231050007 bircan coktasar
3231040017 meral sen
unutmusuz isimleri

1-what is Language War?
its the name of my book which is about national issues in our political culture

2-what is the role of language in popular and political culture according to Language War?
you know speculation about the "real" Hillary Clinton ----------ebonics

3-What is marked or unmarked?
In every language I explain "some linguistic forms are said to be "marked", their correlative "unmarked." Unmarked forms are gineric, the standard; marked forms are some variation on that standard. For example, in english, present tense is unmarked, future and past tenses are marked. Masculine is unmarked (mankind, policeman, freshman); feminine is marked (actress, waitress, coed). For the unmarked, dominant members of society, Lakoff argues, "your attributes are invisible, as your role in making things the way they are is not noticeable.

4-What are the differences between women's speechand men's speech?
I depicted a typical female speech style, allegedly characterized by the
use of features such as hesitations, qualifiers, tag questions, empty an
utterance.For example tag questions "are associated with a desire for
confirmation or approval which signals a lack of self-confidence in the
speaker." Also a tag emphazisesthe power of the questioner to force a
response.My description of female speech style was based on my remembered
impressions rather than on any systematic, quantitative observation.women's
speech can be distinguished from that of men in a number of ways, including:
1. Hedges: Phrases like "sort of," "kind of," "it seems like"
2. Empty adjectives: divine, adorable, gorgeous, etc
3. (Super-)Polite forms: "Would you mind…" "Is it o.k if…?" "…if it’s
not too much to ask"
4. Apologize more: "I'm sorry, but I think that…"
5. Speak less frequently
6. Avoid coarse language or expletives
7. Tag questions: "You don't mind eating this, do you?". Subsequent
research has cast some doubt on this proposition
8. Hyper-correct grammar and pronunciation: Use of prestige grammar and
clear articulation
9. Indirect requests: "Wow I'm so thirsty." – really asking for a drink
10. Speak in italics: Use tone to emphasis certain words, e.g., "so",
"very", "quite".

5-What is the Lng and woman's place?
It is my most famous work about women's language in the field of sociolinguistics.

6-What is your politeness principle?
I developed Politeness Principle in which i devise three maxims that are usually followed in interaction. These are : Don't impose, give the receiver options and make the receiver feel good. I stated that these are pramount in good interaction.

7-What are your feminist researches on the relationship between language and gender?
language is fundamental to gender inequality,i pointed to two areas in which inequalities can be found: Language used about women, such as the asymmetries between seemingly parallel terms like master and mistress , and language used by women, which places women in a double bind between being appropriately feminine and being fully human. My central argument that "women's language" expresses powerlessness triggered a controversy that continues to this day.

8-Where do you work and in what position?
I am a professor-linguistics at University of California, Berkeley I have expertise in pragmatics and socio----linguistics branches.

9-What is language?
Language is the means by which we understand the world and the way we
communicate to one another what we believe the world to be like

10-What is the function of language?
Language is often the clearest way of understanding what is going on, what
is working and what isn't working, and we can chart progress by what goes in
and out of language," said Lakoff.

11-how do you define function's features
Language functions serve as a "universal donor" or
medium especially with regard to the other social sciences and specifically,
gender discussions. Language based evidence is one way of making sense of
social changes.

12-do you think words take meanings according to situations, relationships?
exactly that is what i am trying to say. For example; "Democracy" and
"freedom" to us are unequivocally good words and good
concepts. But in many societies "democracy" may suggest "chaos"; "freedom"
may suggest license - things to oppose and stamp out, not to venerate.
again look at that; We live in freedom; our opponents represent oppression

13-Can you give a more specific example about how language changes according to situation?
The absolutes of our public rhetoric, however thrillingly persuasive they
may sound to us (who hardly require persuasion), are likely to fall flat
when directed at a society that interprets current events very differently
than we do. I am not saying that we need to believe these alternative
positions. To understand is not necessarily to agree or to forgive. But we
must give them respectful consideration. Consider, from this perspective,
three favorite current public absolutisms:
We are morally pure and utterly innocent.
In our eyes, perhaps. But, to many in the Arab world, the United States has
killed Iraqi noncombatants and has been implicit in the killings of innocent
Palestinians.

14-what is more distinguishable about language and women's place?
Language and Woman's Place , is widely recognized as having inaugurated feminist research on the relationship between language and gender, touching off a remarkable response among language scholars, feminists, and general readers.

15- how can you explain women's place with language?
Arguing that language is fundamental to gender inequality, I pointed to two areas in which inequalities can be found: Language used about women, such as the asymmetries between seemingly parallel terms like master and mistress , and language used by women, which places women in a double bind between being appropriately feminine and being fully human. Lakoff's central argument that "women's language" expresses powerlessness triggered a controversy that continues to this day.

16-what can you say about language used byh women?
the language used by women (who is more likely--or expected--to say, "Oh dear" and "My goodness"?) and about women (men pass out, but women faint) reflects the way that women are treated and the real-world possibilities open to them.

17-do ypu think that women have the control of language over men?
They do not exactly besides men have that, however, both minorities and women are battling the white men in power for "control of the narrative" and of language itself.

18-how is language and statue related?
the battle for cultural control is a contest over language is rarely real-world turf lost or gained. Instead, she points to the defensive posturing by defenders of the status quo, uncovering the fear of a black, female, gay planet embedded in conservative rhetoric. But I myself fall into the the same "gotcha" tone that i decry in what's been called the "Argument Culture," the increasingly mean, contentious public discourse born of the language war. For example, i open my skillful debunking of a George Will column with this: "A thorough analysis of the sophistries of Will's argument would take us beyond the millennium." Then i diss him for "sneering.

19- what is your field?
Linguistics offers a fresh take on some played-out stories and reanimates those middle-aged warriors feminism and the fight against racism. Even sympathetic listeners tune out overused terms like "patriarchy" and "the Other." Lakoff's use of linguistic terminology and concepts revives the old struggles for equality, like a Moby re-mix of a '60s anthem that's been beaten into background noise by boomer radio.

20-what do you think about cultural control and language itself?
Battle for cultural control is a contest over language"Temporal space is metaphorically equivalent to physical space: You 'give space' to those you respect; you crowd in on people ... you wish to intimidate." Lakoff also notes that questions addressed to Hill more often included "tags," ending in "is that correct?" or "didn't you?" Among its other uses, "a tag emphasizes the power of the questioner to force a response."
21-what do you think about debates.?
i point again and again to examples of misplaced rage: White guys who'd never expressed a political sentiment in their lives suddenly were bewailing the injustice of having to say "Asian"; non-sports fans fiercely defended team names like the Braves and the Redskins. Through the 1990s, new terms to enable bullying and racism seemed to pop up every day, among them "victim art" and "special interests." Lakoff's claim that much is at stake is bolstered by this seemingly endless parade of squabbles. Above all, "The Language War" is a depressing reminder of just how mean-spirited the 1990s were.
22- What is the the role of language in popularand political culture according to The Language War?
You know speculation about the "real" Hillary Clinton; the O.J.
Simpson trial; ebonics; and the Clinton-Lewinsky-Starr scandal: These
national soap operas all pass Robin Tolmach Lakoff's "Undue Attention Test,"
but it's not because Americans are shallow and prurient. Rather,I say in
"The Language War," we studied these stories for clues about our "insoluble
difficulties with race and gender." The stories that pass the Undue
Attention Test,all involved a struggle over "which group ... gets to make
meaning for us all -- to create and define our culture."
23-You wrote a special article in New York Times.What about this article?
It is about nuances of social, cultural and political infighting among
people,especially Iraq and American people.

24-What are the relations between these nuances America – Iraq War?
In times of crisis, government public rhetoric needs to be absolute and
unambiguous. But equally important are voices that remind us of the
complexity of the situation we are in. To suggest that only one form of
public rhetoric can exist, or that only one kind is legitimate, is to
shortchange the people who have to make important decisions in this
democracy: ourselves.
A thriving democracy requires citizens who can handle complexity. We can do
so only if we permit ambivalent voices to reach our ears and our minds.
For instance, they cite President George W. Bush saying: "In this conflict,
there is no neutral ground. If members of any government sponsor outlaws and
killers of innocents, they have become outlaws and murderers themselves."

And, on the other side, they cite an unnamed Massachusetts Institute of
Technology professor as making the following argument: "Imagine the real
suffering and grief of people in other countries. The best way to begin a
war on terrorism might be to look in the mirror."
The differences between these two voices are numerous. But both need to be
heard respectfully if we are to preserve a free and vigorous democracy.
Shutting off equivocal views only makes it harder for us to understand what
democracy - what we are repeatedly told we are fighting for - really means.
Moreover, this struggle is being fought not only by the weapons of war but
in the court of public opinion often called the Arab street, through a
principal organ of Muslim public opinion, the Dubai-based Arab television
station al-Jazeera. If America cannot convince its Muslim allies that our
cause is just, the coalition will fall apart, to our detriment. To this end,
we have dispatched experts in public relations to sell our side. But they
cannot - we cannot - persuade Arabs of the justice of our cause unless we
are able to understand their position and make reference to it.
In our eyes, perhaps. But, to many in the Arab world, the United States has
killed Iraqi noncombatants and has been implicit in the killings of innocent
Palestinians.

25-What are the connections between the politics of language and the language of in the battles of past decade?
I investigate how developments in world media have affected, and
been affected by,
language. Exploring a wide range of topics, from the globalization of
communication to the vocabulary of terrorism and the language used in the
wake of September 11.This reasons are occured py political events which are
terrorism and globalization.
26-What kind of studies do you make in the field of linguistics?
I am interested in the comparative syntax of Latin and English; the
relation between linguistic form and social and psychological context;
language and gender; discourse strategies (e.g. indirectness and
politeness); discourse genres (e.g. psychotherapeutic and courtroom
discourse).
27-Can you explain that your idea is “language as a tool,not as a purpose” ?
Language is the means by which we understand the world and the
way we communicate to one another what we believe the world to be like.
Language functions serve as a "universal donor" or medium. Language is often
the clearest way of understanding what is going on, what is working and what
isn't working, and we can chart progress by what goes in and out of
language.
28-What kinds of implication did you tell in the fourth Provost Distinguished Women Lecture Series in the United States ?
I used my expertise in linguistics to analyze the progress toward
equality of opportunity for all people in the United States.I began MY
lecture by introducing MY basic argument, "redrawing the gender line in the
sand" and then by explaining what linguists have to say about social
changes.

29-What is “It's a Time to Let Discordant Voices Ring”?
It is my article was published in Newdays Newyork.

30-What’s about the article?
three favorite current public absolutisms:
1-We are morally pure and utterly innocent.
In our eyes, perhaps. But, to many in the Arab world, the United States has
killed Iraqi noncombatants and has been implicit in the killings of innocent
Palestinians.
2-We live in freedom; our opponents represent oppression.
"Democracy" and "freedom" to us are unequivocally good words and good
concepts. But in many societies "democracy" may suggest "chaos"; "freedom"
may suggest license - things to oppose and stamp out, not to venerate.
3-We aim to save civilization from their savagery.
Imagine the effect of such rhetoric on members of a culture whose memory
goes back a thousand years to a time when their civilization kept learning
alive during the West's Dark Ages. How dare we, they must think, claim
"civilization" unilaterally for our own? We sometimes minimize the power of
rhetoric - we call it "only rhetoric," "mere words."
But the battle being waged over what kind of language is right for
American public speech, in the present crisis, shows that we all are well
aware of what language can do.
31-what can you say about sexism in language?
women may be less effective than men in competitive environments, even if they are able to perform similarly in noncompetitive environments. In a laboratory experiment we observe, as we increase the competitiveness of the environment, a significant increase in performance for men, but not for women. This results in a significant gender gap in performance in tournaments, while there is no gap when participants are paid accornding to piece rate. This effect is strong when women have to compete against men than in single-sex competitive environments.

Anonymous said...

JEAN PIAGET
1) What is your full name? I am Jean PIAGET.
2)What is your time of birth?\ when were you born?
I was born on August 9, 1896.
3)Where were you born?
In Neuchatel.
4)what is your occupation?
I am a natural scientist, developmental psychologist and Swiss philosopher.
5)which university did you graduate?
I graduated from the University of Neuchatel and I received my Doctorate in Science from the University of Neuchatel.
6)where and in which position have you worked since you started your career?
I worked for a year at psychology labs in Zurich and at Bleuler' s famous psychiatric clinic. later I accepted a position at the Institut J.J. Rousseau in Geneva. In 1929, I began to work as a director of the International Bureau of Education. In 1940, I became chair of Experimental Psychology, the Director of the psychology laboratory and the president of the Swiss Society of Psychology than I became a professor at the Sorbonne and now I continue my public service through UNESCO as a Swiss delegate.
7)Is there anyone who inspired your thougts?
Myfather, Arthur PIAGET, who is a professor of medieval literature at the university of Neuchatel taught me the value of systematic work, even in small matters and my godfather, the Swiss scholar Samuel Cornut nurtured in me an interest in philosophy and epistemology during my adolescence.
8) What was your interest when you were a child?
I developed an interest in biology and the natural world , particularly mollusks, and even published a number of papers before I graduated from high school.
9) When did you begin your scientific research?
When I was ten, with the 1907 publication of a short paper on the albino sparrow.
10) are you married?
I am married Valentine Chatenay, one of my students.
11) how many children do you have?
I have 3 children.
12) What is the importance of your children in your life?
they are real examples for my studies because I have studied on them from their infancy.
13) what is the meaning of genetic epistemology?
It is the study of the development of knowledge.
14) can you explain me "genetic epistemology" in detail?
It is a study of the origin (genesis ) of knowledge (epistemology). It shows that the method in which the knowledge was obtained\created affects the validity of that knowledge.for example, our direct experience with gravity makes our knowledge of it more valid than our indirect experience with black holes.
15) what are your three types of knowledge?
they are physical, logical mathematical, and social knowledge.
16) what is physical knowledge?
It refers to knowledge related to objects in the world, which can be acquired through perceptual properties. The acquisition of physical knowledge has been equated with learning. In other words thougt is fit directly to experience.
17) what is logical mathematical knowledge?
It is abstract and must be invented, but through actions on objects that are fundamentally different from lose actions enabling physical knowledge.
18) what is social knowledge?
It is culture-specific and can be learned only from other people within one's cultural group.
19) what is your theory of cognitive development?
It concerns the emergence and acquisition of schemata -schemes of how one perceives the world -in "developmental stages", times when children are acquiring new ways of mentally representing information. The theory is considered "constructivist".
20) What is constructivist?
Constructing our cognitive abilities through self-motivated action in the world.
21)what is education for you?
education means making creators...you have to move inventors, innovators-not conformists.
22) How did you effect early education?
teachers use my theory of cognitive development as a tool in the classroom. For me, children develop best in a classroom with interaction. Using this idea, teachers in elememtary schools and pre-school can make use of classroom time better using peer interaction.
23) How did you effect moral education?
the idea is that children observe the world, and then decide what is morally correct. Therefore, in today's education, it is started to bring moral education into education, such as talking about cheating and what is morally correct in today's society, dealing with crime and morals in politics.
24) In which areas has your theory of cognitive development proved influential?
•Developmental psychology
•Education and Morality
•Historical Studies of Thought and Cognition
•Evaluation
•Philosophy
•Primatology
•Artificial Intelligence
25) How many books and articles did you write over the course of your career?
I wrote more than sixty books and several hundred articles.
26) What is reflecting abstraction?
through repeated actions, perhaps with variations or in different context or on different kinds of objects, the child is able to differentiate and integrate its elements and effects.this is the process of reflecting abstractions.
27)What is emprical abstraction?
The child is able to identify the properties of objects by the way different kinds of action affect them. This is the process of emprical abstraction.
28)What is cognitive stage?
By repeating the process of empirical abstraction across a wide range of objects and actions, the child establishes a new level of knowledge and insight. This is the process of forming a new cognitive stage.
29)How do children understand the world?
I divided schemes that children use to understand the world through four main periods, roughly correlated with and becoming increasingly sophisticated with age:
•sensor motor period (years 0-2)
•preoperational period (years 2-7)
•concrete operational period (years 7-11)
formal operational period (years 11-adulthood)
30)Can you explain me Preoperational stage?
The child can classify objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colour.
31)What is preparatory thought?
During this stage the child learns to use and to represent objects by images and words, in other words they learn to use symbolic thinking.
32) Can you explain me Formal Operational Stage?
It is characterized by acquisition of the ability to think abstractly, reason logically and draw conclusions from the information available. During this stage the young adult is able to understand such things as love ''the shades of gray'', logical proofs, and values.
33)Can you explain me concrete operational stage?
It is characterized by the appropriate use of logic. Important processes during this stage are: serrations, classification, decentring, reversibility, conversation, elimination of egocentrism.
34)What is sensor motor period?
This stage marks the development of essential spatial abilities and understanding of the world in six sub-stages: reflexes, habits, coordination, between vision and prehension, object permanence, insight and creativity.
The form of our questions:
Could you explain…………..?
Tell me about………………….
Can you tell me about……….?
How do\ could you define……?
What\ how about………………?
What can you say…………….?
How could you explain……….?
Can you give some information…..?

3231050136 AYÇA BENER
3231050134 AYŞEGÜL MİROĞLU

Anonymous said...

3231040098 fikret yaşar
topic: Language acquisition

1-What is the critical period? What seems to happen to the brain at the end of the critical period?
Critical period is a limited time in which an event can occur, usually to result in some kind of transformation. A "critical period" in developmental psychology and developmental biology is a time in the early stages of an organism's life during which it displays a heightened sensitivity to certain environmental stimuli, and develops in particular ways due to experiences at this time. If the organism does not receive the appropriate stimulus during this "critical period", it may be difficult, or even impossible, to develop some functions later in life.

2-How does a child begin to speak? Why?
These are questions that many linguists set out to answer as they explore the world of language acquisition. Three credible linguists, Ann M. Peters, Noam Chomsky, and Roger Brown, all have different opinions and theories of language acquisition. All of them address influences, grammar, and patterns of speech in their theories, but in different contexts. Chomsky believes it is genetic, Peters believes it is totally up to the environment, and Brown believes it is due to positive reinforcement and trial and error. All three theories are credible and have provided great insight into the ways children do acquire language. Language acquisition is a widely researched topic, and will continue to have new theories evolve as long as children keep talking. This paper assesses and describes different aspects of each linguists' theory in detail and offers the author's opinion on which theory proves to be the most successful and credible based on reasearch.

3-What is Chomsky's theory of language acquisition?
-there is an optimal learning age. Between the ages 3 to 10 a child is the most likely to learn a language in its entirety and grasp fluency. After this age, it is hard and even considered impossible for the child to completely grasp the language. the child does not need a trigger to begin language acquisition, it happens on its own and it does not matter if a child is corrected, they still grasp the language in the same manner and speak the same way.

4-What does B.F. Skinner believe about language acquisition?
-Skinner believes that language is behavior, and, just like any other behavior, it is learned. This learning occurs through "reinforcement of successive approximations". Supposedly, a child is randomly making sounds, such as hi-hi, a-a-a-a and says "mi" . The mother, on hearing this, gets very excited, pays attention to the baby, says "Oh, you want milk!" and gives him a bottle of milk. After a while, the novelty of "mi" wears off and mother insists that the baby say "milk" before she provides the reinforcement of praise and milk. After a longer while, milk is not good enough, and the child must say "I want milk" to be rewarded.

5-What is the difference between ´Language Learning´and Language Acquisition´?
The difference between ´Language Learning´ and ´Language Acquisition´ is acquiring a language is simply knowing the words whereas Language learning is understanding the words and the part they play in a sentence along with structure of the sentence.

6-How are language acquisition and applied linguistics related with each other?
LA is often viewed as part of , it is typically concerned with the language system and learning processes themselves, whereas applied linguistics may focus more on the experiences of the learner, particularly in the classroom. Additionally, SLA has mostly examined naturalistic acquisition, where learners acquire a language with little formal training or teaching.

7-What are cognitive approaches in language acquisition?
A great deal of research and speculation has taken place on the cognitive processes underlying SLA. Ellen Bialystok has modelled the process of acquisition in terms of gaining increasing attentional control over language use. In other words, as the processes of word selection and utterance construction become increasingly automatic, learners' language ability also improves.

8-What is important of Language transfer in acquiring or learning a language?
Language transfer typically refers to the learner's trying to apply rules and forms of the first language into the second language. The term can also include the transfer of features from one additional language to another (such as from a second to a third language), although this is less common.

9-What are individual variations in language acquitision?
Individual variations in language acquisition are Language aptitude, age, strategy used, personality factors and affective filters.

10-What is The Language Acquisition Device (LAD)?
The Language Acquisition Device (LAD) is a postulated "organ" of the brain that is supposed to function as a congenital device for learning symbolic language (i.e., language acquisition). First proposed by Noam Chomsky, the LAD concept is a component of the nativist theory of language which dominates contemporary formal linguistics, which asserts that humans are born with the instinct or "innate facility" for acquiring language.

11-What are stages of Language Acquisition Device?
a.The device searches the class of language structure hypotheses and selects those compatible with input signals and structural information drawn from the PLD.
b.The device then tests the compatibility using the knowledge of implications of each hypothesis for the sentences.
c.One hypothesis or ‘grammar’ is selected as being compatible with the PLD.
d.This grammar provides the device with a method of interpreting sentences (by virtue of its capacity for internally representing structural information and applying the grammar to sentences).

12-How did Stephen Krashen contribute to the theory of Critical Period?
The term "language acquisition" became commonly used after Stephen Krashen contrasted it with formal and non-constructive "learning." Today, most scholars use "language learning" and "language acquisition" interchangeably, unless they are directly addressing Krashen's work. However, "second language acquisition" or "SLA" has become established as the preferred term for this academic discipline.

Anonymous said...

Up to you, what kind of study does pragmatPragmatics involves in the study of relation between the structure of a semiotic system notably language and its usage in context,and along with semantics,forms part of the general theory of meaning.

Can you give information about the theory of meaning?

Within the theory of meaning, pragmatics is especially concerned with implicit meaning, with inference and the unsaid, and the way in which language structure trades on this background of the presumed and the inferred.

Pragmatics has come to play an important part in general linguistic theory.Can you explain us the reason why it has come to that point?

Of course, pragmatics has come to that point,because it has substantial, intrinsic subject matter, hardly because it promises explanations for other linguistic phenomena, and partly,as a response to over-idealization in contemporary gramatical theory.

Then, we can say that it has become an area of interdisciplinary concern, can't you?

Yes, it has become like that with fundamental contributions from philosophy of language, psychology and sociology of language.

What can you say about the history of pragmatics?

The use of term 'pragmatics' in modern semiotics derives from the philosophical work of C.S.PEİRCE and R.CARNOP,reflected in C.MORRİS's (1938) three divisions of semiotics, the study of sign systems:syntax;which investigates the relation of signs to signs,semantics;which investigates the notion to the things referred to,and pragmatics,which studies the relation of signs to user of them.
Since then,the usage of term has bifurcated into a broad use,whichsubsumes sociolinguistics and discourse analysis,and a narrower use in which pragmatics deals with those aspects of meaning that are systematically context-dependent.

6)On the scope for pragmatics,what does it concern with?

Comtemporary linguistic pragmatics is focused on a number of special relations between linguistic meaning and context.On the narrower scope for pragmatics,concerned with context-dependent meaning,the following topics have come to be central:deixis,presupposition,speech acts,implicature,and conversatioal inference.

7)About deixis,what can you say?

Hmm,deixis is the phenomenon whereby some linguistic expressions are systematically dependent on the context for their interpretation.

8)Can you give amn example for that explanation?

Ok,take for example the utterance 'put this book over there' -which book is being referred to,and which place it is to be put,are determined by features of context outside the utterance itself her typically gestures: this and there act as place-holders for contextually- specified parameters.

9)How can we understand whether an expression is deictic or not?

A good test for whether an expression is deictic or not is whether an utturancein ehich it plays a part would be equally true(or false) regardless of speaker,adress,time or place of utterance:thus 'The square root of nine is three'has no obvious deictics,whereas 'we are coming soon'has only deictic expressions.

10)Then,deixis is not a simple phenomenon,is it?

Yes,at first sight,it seems to be a simple phenomenon.but the intersectionof this context-dependence with the property of abstract symbolic representation in language leads to deep complexities,and the phenomeno turns out to be very puzzling both philosophically and psychologically,for deixis introduces context-dependency into almost every utterance.

11)Could you make an explanation for philosophical puzzles?

Ok,one of the central philosophical puzzles is that deixis makes possible self-refences in utterances,thus introducing, e.g..many paradoxes of the 'Creton-liar'type:'this sentence is false'is true if and only if it is false.

12)Ok,for another kind of puzzle 'as psychological'what do you say?

one of the central psychological puzzles is that deixis makes clear that there is a mismatchbetween what a sentence means and the thought correspondingto its utterance.For example,what exactlyis the thought corresponding to the utterances 'today is tuesday';it is obviously not'Tuesday is tuesday',nor(if the day of speaking is 31st december 2035)'31st december 2035 is a teusday'since the speaker may have no idea of the date.Closer mightbe 'the diurnal span in which iam now speaking falla on the calendrical second day of the week'-but now we have paraphrased one deictic term(today)in terms of others(i,now).And the puzzle goes on.

13)What are four main national parameters which language incorporate deictic context-dependency?

Language incorporate deictic context-dependency in many different places in theirgrammars and lexica,but it is conventional to consider four main national parameters:first,there is PERSON DEİXİS,reflected in the traditional grammatical categories of first,second and third person,where first and second person refer to members of the speech event (current speaker and current addressee respectively)in contrast to the third person.these categories are reflected in pronoun system,verbal agreement and elsewhere.many languages make unfamiliar demands here:for example,in S.E.Asia languages like Korean or Javanese have different word-forms for refering to entities like kinsmen,houses,food,according to the relative status of speaker and addressee.Or in some Australian languages(like Dalabon)pronouns make reference to whether the speaker and the referent,or the referents in the case of plural third person pronouns,are one vs.two generations apart genealogically.This encoding ofthe social relation between speaker,addressee and third-party referent is often recognised as a seperate deictic dimension,called SOCIAL DEIXIS.
A Second important parameter is TIME.Temporal deixis is directly manifested in english in words like NOW,and as mentioned,in tense.True tenses locate time relative to the moment of speaking,so that a past tense is used for events preceding it,present for events including it,and future for events succeding.Not all languages hev tenses (e.g. Malay or Chinese),and not all the gramatical categories that grammarians call tenses are trully deictic.
A Third parameter is SPATIAL DEİXİS,reflected in demonstratives like THIS and THAT,or adverbs like HERE and THERE,where spatial locations are indicated by reference to the place of speaking.Demonstrative systems vary greatly across languages,with some making distance from speaker primary,others making a contrast between 'this near speaker'vs.'that near addressee',and others invoking attentional issues,so that one has a contrast between e.g. 'this we are talking about'vs.'that to which ı want to draw your attention'.Huge arrays of demonstratives are found in some languages where these sorts of parameters intersect with,for example,the shape of things referred to.Languages often have pairs of verbs,like COME vs GO,BRING vs TAKE,which are often interpreted according to whether the motion is towards or away from the place of speaking.
Lastly,discourse deixis involves the possibility of refering from one utternce backwards or forwards to oyhers,as in 'That was a good speech'vs.'It made a sound like this:goooo'.Discourse deixis grades into anaphora,the use of expressions like pronouns to refer to entities already introduced earlier,usually by fuller expressions.It is also closely related to DEFINITIESS as in The man ve. a man,since all these phenomena rely on mental modes of entities introduced into the discourse.

14)What is the importance of presupposition in pragmatics?

Presupposition is a second major topic in pragmatics,and concerns the way in which propositions already presumed in a discourse context are usually not stated or questioned,but encoded in a more 'background' way.For example,'Has he stopped bothering you?'presupposes the proposition that you and ı know that he has been bothering you,and asks whether this has stopped.

15)What is the effect of SPEECH ACTS on pragmatics?

A third major topic in pragmatics concerns the general force or point utterances,andis usually discussed under the rubric of speech acts.We can take a simple underlying proposition like 'The wine is (put)on the tabble',and we can embody it in utterances with different illocutionary force.

16)Are speech acts dependent on the context?

Yes,speech acts are dependent on,and contribute to,the context in which apeech is taking place.One way of seeing this is to construe speech acts as operations on the context: a statement adds a propositions to the context,a question request that such a proposition is edded,a denial removes one,and so on.

17)what are the contributions of coversational implicature on pragmatics?

So far we have considered ways in which the structures of language build in presumptions of use,as in pronouns,demonstratives,verbs of presuppositon,or sentence-types as indicators of speech acts.In this cases the semantics of the expressions triggers the pragmatic inferences,which are themselves subject to pragmatic resolution.But another very important aspect of pragmatics is concerned with inferences tahe are invited rather tahn required or triggered by the semantics:often,synonymous expressions will have different implicatures.

18)As can be seen from your books,you are accepting a general human capacity of 'inference'.What can you base this acceptance on?

Yes,there are really strong reasons for this acceptance,but one of them gains more importance.I have aan argument from our design.I mean,due to our anatomic make-up,there seems to be a bottle-neck in our information system:'the transmission rate of human speech'(the actual time we need in order to form phonologically discrete sounds)is about four times slower than other aspects of human speech production(prearticulation procesparsing and comprehension procedures)This loss of speed,has to be made up by inferencing process:if we can express more by using less words,we gain in speed.

19)You are speaking about three'heuristics'that guie generalized conversational implicatures.Can you explain what are these heuristics,if possible,with an example?

Of course,The first heuristic can be summed up in the formula:'what isn't said ,isn't'and crucially relies on salient lexical contrasts to rule out a whole number of states of affair. I can exemplify these principles with one examplesentence.'There's a blue pyramid on the red cube'.'The first heuristic principle licences the inference that 'there is not a cane on the red cube.'The second heuristic says that 'what is the simply described is stereotypically exemplifyied.'This principle licences the inference that ,e.g.,there is direct contact was indirect ,the speaker should have said so,because the stereotypical situation described by an'on relationship is one involving direct contact.The third principle is the counterpart of the second:'what' said in an abnormal way,isn't normal:or Marked message indicaes marked situation'.If,for instances,one can infer that the black in question is not a stereotypical one.the marked form 'cubaid'licences the inference that the black is not a canonical cube.

20)Can you summarize what you mean by 'Presumptive Meaning'?

When we spaek,we mean more than we say.In a more specific way,some of the indirect information carried by speech is presummed by default,because it is carried by general principles,rather than inferred from specified assumptions about intention and context.

21)You have given a large place to 'From which aspect you concentrate this subject on?

Languages differ in the frames of references they employ for locating aspects with respect to one another.For instance,some language make almost exclusive use of absolute coordinates or cordinal directions(like,'north'),providing no linguistic terms for egocentric or relative coordinates ('to the left of').In contrast.familiar European languages primarily use relative coordinates,not absolute ones.Over a wide array of languages and cultures,these linguistics specializations arecorrelated with non-linguisic strategies for spatial memory and inference.

22)One of the most fundamental questions in linguistics is whether thought is dependent on words.If people of different cultures use different frames of references in their verbal communication,one could easily assume that they alse have different mental representations of these references in their heads.However is that the case?Is our verbal communication more or less a direct representation of what we experiences mentally?

Ohh,a smartly asked question!Our concentration must be on the advantages of spatial models for thinking.There is no one to ome mapping from spatial cognition to spoken words.There is a fundamental dinstinction between semantic and conceptual structures.Different languages use different spatial expressions and some of them are simply imcomprehensible for one group of speaker or the other.We can not hold both to the thesis of the congruency of thought and language nad to the thesis of the universality of conceptual categories.

23)Can you make this clear with an example,ıf possible?

Ok,then consider the following set of examples:
'The fence is in front of the house'(relative,object centered frame e.g.in the english language)
'The dence is north of the house'(absolute frame of reference used e.g.by speaker of Mesoamerica)
Obviously,speaker of the english language wouldn't know in the first place if the fence lies in the northern position of the house.Unless they have a compass or know the cardinal directions by heart.The fact is that in the english language cardinal directions are not used in this sense but rether for geographic orientation,cartography,mapping and navigation.One can see that different speakers of different languagues may have the same concept in their minds,but expess it with different frames of reference.The difficulty is how to translate mental spatial relations into spoken words and still be abla to communicate successfully.In a culture,where all particaiapnts have been exposed to uniform commonly used frames pf reference,spatial caommunication will be no severe problem but things become more precarious in cross-cultural communication.Consequently,not all languages use the same frame of reference.Some use predominantly one,others use two,others again use all three of them.As speakers of various languages are trained in their specific cultural and therey also spatial frameworks,they are linguistically dependant on these frames.Moreover frames of reference are not freely translatable from one modality in to another...

Anonymous said...

the upwards comment belongs to
DİLBER ŞEM 3231050094
BEYZA KORUCU 3231059958
OUR cyberlinguistic is STEPHEN C. LEVINSON

Anonymous said...

3231050079 İbrahim Burhan
3231050025 Hasan Yaykın
Our linguist is Swadesh Morris
USERNAME:swadeshmorris
PASSWORD:swadeshmorris

1)Can you tell me about yourself?Who are you?
-I am an American Linguist. I was born in Holyoke, Massachusetts to Russian Jewish parents.I received my B.A. from the University of Chicago and my Ph.D. from Yale University, where i studied with Edward Sapir

2)Are there anyone who inspired you?
-Yes Edward Sapir.He was my teacher and we also studied together.
3)What is your terminology? /What are your key terms?
-Typology, historical linguistics, Native American languages, lexicostatistics-phonemic analysis,swadesh list,lexicostatistics,glottochronology,The Origin and Diversification of Language’?,language isolate

4)What is linguistic typology?
-It is a subfield of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural features. It's aim is to describe and explain the structural diversity of the world's languages.

5)What is historical linguistics?
-It is a number of distant genetic links among languages. In my extensive investigations of numerous languages, i gained an increasing appreciation of apparent lexical and structural similarities in different languages, and my interest in comparative historical linguistics grew. To determine whether two given languages are related ‘comperative method’ is employed.

6)What is phonemic analysis?
-It is the analysis of the sound structure or phonology of languages.

7)Can you explain it more?
-Yes of course.I developed a set of principles to help the phonologist discover phonemes on the basis of the distribution of sounds in a given language. English, for example, uses different "p"- sounds in pit, upper, and spill. Since the pronunciation is in each case clearly dependent on the exact position within the word, i suggested that these positional sound variants are in “complementary distribution” and should thus be regarded as instances of the same sound type or phoneme.

8)What is lexicostatistics?
-It is a mathematical technique for estimating the degree of linguistic divergence between two or more languages. With more than two languages it provides a means of building a language tree. In this method we use a list of meanings with words for each meaning in the languages being compared.

9)What is glottochronology?
-It is a term referring to methods in historical linguistics used to estimate the time at which languages diverged, based on the assumption that the basic (core) vocabulary of a language changes at a constant average rate.

10)Can you give detailed information about this method?
-Of course.This method is based on an analogy with the use of carbon dating for measuring the age of organic materials, in that a "lexical half-life" is estimated. The method estimates the length of time since two or more languages diverged from a common earlier proto-language, by counting the number of words that have been replaced in each language. This then yields an estimated date of origin for those languages.

11)What is proto-language?
-Shortly a proto-language is a language which was the common ancestor of related languages that form a language family.

12)What is Swadesh word list?
-A Swadesh list is one of several lists of vocabulary with "basic" meanings in different languages.These word lists are used in ‘lexicostatistics’ and ‘glottochronology’

13)Can you give me some information about native American languages?
-These are languages spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. These indigenous languages consist of dozens of distinct language families andunclassified languages.

14)What is ‘The Origin and Diversification of Language’?
-It is my major book.

15)Can you tell about your book?
-I am afraid you have to read the book.

16)What is language isolate?
-A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language.

Also the questions 'What is...'can be asked in this way:

a)what is …
b)how could you explain…
c)tell me about…
d)can you tell me about…
e)how could you define…
f)what about…
g)how about…

Anonymous said...

Tayyibe ARITÜRK / 3231050032
Nevra ARAS /3231050084


1)What is your name?
Jens Otto Harry Jesperson.

2)Who are you?
I am a Danish linguist ,I was a proffessor of English at Copenhagen University from 1893 to 1923.

3)When and where were you born?
Iwas born in Randers in July 16,1860.

4)What kind of work/studies did you make in your field ?

Along with some linguist, I am a founder of the International Phonetic Association and developer of International Auxilary Languages.

5)What is International Auxilary Language means ?
IAL is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who don’t share a common native language.It is essentialy a second language : eg.Ido.

6)What is Ido ?
Ido is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second languge for speakers of different linguistic backrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages.Unlike English,which is a natural and frequently irregular language,Ido was specifially designed for grammmatical orthographic and lexicographical regularity, and to favor no one who might otherwise be advantaged in a situation due to native fluency in a widespread language :eg.Esparanto ,Latino sine Flexione ,Volapük.

7)Did you do any further study on IAL?
In 1928 I developed the Novial langugae.

8)Can you tell me about Novial language?
It is also constructed ınternational auxiliary language , intended to faciliate international communication and friendship without displacing anyone’s native language .Its vocabulary is based largely on the Germanic and Romance languages and its grammar is influenced by English.It has also its own dictionary ‘Novial Lexike’.

9)Can this Novial language be used today?
After it brought onin 1990s by the internet many people rediscovered Novial.Alternative possible solutions for problems in the phonology ,orthography ,grammar and word-stock
are considered and explained by comparison with ethnic languages and constructed IALs.

10)How could you define your study on the theories of Rank and Nexus.In this theory of ranks removes the parts of speech from the syntax , and differentiates between primaries, secondaries, and tertiaries ;e.g in “well honed phrase” “phrase” is a primary, this being defined by a secondary, “ honed “, which again is defined by “ tertiary “ “ well “.
11)Can you tell me about your study on the nexus theory?
The term nexus is applied to what may be called sentences and sentences in embryo, thus the dog barks furiously, the door is red, (I heard) the dog bark, (he painted) the door red. A dependent nexus may enter in a sentence as a subject, object, etc., just like a single word, thus the dog bark and the door red are objects in the full sentences. A juncion represents one idea, expressed by means of two or more elements, whereas a nexus combines two ideas.

12)How did you recognize in the puplic or what is the element that effect your reputation?
I was most widely recognized for some of my book. Modern English Grammar (1909), in this book I concentrated on morphology and syntax and Growth and Structure of the English Language (1905) is a comprehensive view of English stil in print nearly 100 years after publication.

13)What is sound symbolism?
Sound symbolism, we may say, makes some words more survive.In particular, it is the idea that phonemes like this :/ b / carry meaning in and of themselves.

14)Can you tell me some about your essays?I wrote two essays on “ the use of phonetics “ and “ adversative conjunctions “.

15)What is the use of phonetics ?
Science is usefull ; but often it is so in a roundabout or indirect way. Everybody knows the manner in which corrections of pronunciation were generally made in old-fashioned classes, and how they are stil made by too many teachers.The pupil reads some word in some misearably erroneousway, the teacher stops him pronounces the word in, let us assume, the correct way.The pupils tries to imitate that pronounciation,but fails,and thus we have an endless repetition of teh same word by the teacher.How different, if the teacher knows enough of phonetics to be able to tell the sound sa it should be.He prnounces sounds long and distinct by themselves,without any sounds before or after which are apt to bewilder the ear by diverting the attention from the sounds which it is now esay to appreciate, is produced by the sound or whatever the mistake in question may be.As simple drawing on the blackboard, alook into a hard-mirror, a little experimenting with your fingers, and there you are : the sound that appeared so difficult to appreciate is now understood in its mechanism.
16) What is the article “ Adversative Conjunctions “ about?
This article is deal with a series of adversative conjunctions on whose origin sufficient light would seem to have been thrown-enough at any rate to satisfy the etmological dictionaries in general use.

Anonymous said...

Yasemin Bülbül 3231050002
Özlem Top 3231050068
Linguist: J.R.R. Tolkien

1-What is your full name?
My name is John Ronald Reuel Tolkien.
2-When were you born?
I was born on January 3, 1892
3-Where were you born?
I was born in Bloemfontein, South Africa
4-Which schools did you attend?
I attended Edward's School, St. Phillip's Gramlar School, and Oxford.
5-When and where did you die?
I died in Bournemouth, England on September 2nd,1973.
6-What is your nationality?
I am British.
7-What are the genres of your Works and studies?
I worked on high fantasy, translation and criticism.
8-Do you have any debut work and if yes, what is the name of your debut work?
Yes, i have. Its name is The Hobbit,1937.
9-What is your occupation, job? I mean on which fields are you working?
I am author/poet ,linguist, university professor and also philologist.
10-Do you see any influences and inspirations on your Works and your life?
Yes, i do. C.S. Lewis, George MacDonald, Germanic paganism, Greco-Roman mythology,some linguistics, Anglo-Saxon literature such as Beowulf, the Norse sagas (such as the Volsunga saga and the Hervarar saga) , the Poetic Edda, the Prose Edda, the Nibelungenlied and numerous other culturally related works, the Kalevala, the Bible. I also drew influence from a variety of Celtic Scottish and Welsh history and legends. They all influenced me in my life.
11-What are your best known Works as an author?
My best known Works are The Hobbit and The Lord of The Rings.
12-What is your religion, what do you think about religion, do you believe in God?
I am a kind of devout Roman Catholic. Even, it was soon after the Church had changed the liturgy from Latin to English. I obviously didn't agree with this and made all the responses very loudly in Latin while the rest of the congregation answered in English.
I participated in Traditional Meetings. I voiced my support on several occasions for the Pre Conciliar Tridentine Mass.
13-Have you ever affected somebody about religion?
Yes, i tried, however i couldn’t manage. My faith was significant in the conversion of my friend, C. S. Lewis from atheism to Christianity, although i was greatly disappointed that Lewis chose to return to Anglicanism, rather than becoming a Catholic like me.
14-Where is your grave?
My grave is in Wolvercote Cemetery,Oxford.
15-Are you religious or are you conservative?
Yes, i am really conservative about both religion and politics in the sense of favouring established conventions and orthodoxies over innovation and modernization.
16-What do you think about politics, What are your political views and ideas?
I am conservative. The question of racist or racialist elements in my views and works has been the matter of some scholarly debate. I have condemned Nazi "race-doctrine" and anti-Semitism as "wholly pernicious and unscientific". I also said of apartheid in my birthplace South Africa.
Besides, My political opinions lean more and more to Anarchy (philosophically understood, meaning abolition of control, not whiskered men with bombs) – or to 'unconstitutional' Monarchy.
17-What do you think about colour differences, black and white people?
The treatment of colour nearly always horrifies anyone going out from Britain. I have the hatred of apartheid in my bones; and most of all I detest the segregation or separation of Language and Literature. I do not care which of them you think White.
18-What do you think about Nazis or Adolf Hitler?
I just have condemned Nazis race-doctrine and anti-Semitism as "wholly pernicious and unscientific".
19-Could you tell us your linguistic career?
Yes, certainly. I specialized in Ancient Greek philology in college, and in 1915 graduated with Old Norse as special subject. I worked for the Oxford English Dictionary from 1918, and am credited with having worked on a number of W words, including walrus, over which i struggled mightily. In 1920, i went to Leeds as Reader in English Language, where i claimed credit for raising the number of students of linguistics from five to twenty. I gave courses in Old English heroic verse, history of English, various Old English and Middle English texts, Old and Middle English philology, introductory Germanic philology, Gothic, Old Icelandic, and Medieval Welsh. When in 1925, aged thirty-three, I applied for the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon, i boasted that his students of Germanic philology in Leeds had even formed a Viking Club.
Briefly, I devoted myself to Linguistics and Philology.
20-What is your opinion about West Midlands dialect of Middle English?
I am a West-midlander by blood and took to early west-midland Middle English as a known tongue as soon as I set eyes on it.
21-What are your best developed artificial languages?
Quenya and Sindarin are the most developed ones in my opinion.
22-What is Quenya?
It is one of my best developed artificial languages.
23-What is Sindarin?
It is one of my best developed artificial languages.
24-What do you think about language and grammar?
Language and grammar are matter of aesthetic and euphony for me.
25-Could you give me an information about Quenya?
It is an early form of the language which appears as Quenya in the Lord of The Rings. In particular, it was designed from "phonaesthetic" considerations; it was intended as an "Elvenlatin", and was phonologically based on Latin, with ingredients from Finnish and Greek.
26-What is your legenderium?
It is a collection of scholarly essays.
27-What do you think about auxiliary languages?
I think, languages are inseperable from mythology. Language construction will breed a mythology. For example, Volapük, Esperanto, Ido, Novial, etc., are dead, far deader than ancient unused languages, because their authors never invented any Esperanto legends.
28-What are the names of your primary or most important works?
The Hobbit,Farmer Giles of Ham,The Homecoming of Beorthnoth Beorthelm's Son,The Lord of the Rings,The Adventures of Tom Bombadil,Tree and Leaf,Tolkien Reader,The Smith of Wootton Major,The Road Goes Ever On: A Song Cycle,The Silmarillion,The Father Christmas Letters,Pictures of J. R. R. Tolkien,Unfinished Tales,The Book of Lost Tales, Part One,The Book of Lost,Tales, Part Two,The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays,The Lays of Beleriand ,The Shaping of Middle-earth,The Lost Road and Other Writings,The Return of the Shadow,The Treason of Isengard,The War of the Ring,Sauron Defeated,Morgoth's Ring,The War of the Jewels,The People's of Middle-earth.
I think they are too much
29-What is The Hobbit?
It is one of my books published in 1937. Though intended for children, the book gained an adult readership as well, and it became popular enough for the publisher to convince me to work on a sequel. Many editions are currently available including paperbacks. Apart from a few names, like Elrond, there is no linguistic material here. This book also uses Anglo-Saxon runes which can be studied elsewhere.
30-Who is W. H. Auden?
He was one of my best friends. I am initiated by his fascination with The Lord of the Rings: He was among the most prominent early critics to praise the work. I am very deeply in Auden's debt in recent years. His support of me and interest in my work has been one of my chief encouragements. He gave me very good reviews, notices and letters from the beginning when it was by no means a popular thing to do. He was, in fact, sneered at for it.
31-On which literary works did you make criticism?
Beowulf, Sir Gawain and Green Knight.
32-How many artificial languages did you invent?
15
33-What are your most famous artificial languages?
The two Elvish languages from Lord of the Rings, Quenya and Sindarin.
34-What are the names of your Works published in your lifetime?
1937 The Hobbit
1945 Leaf by Niggle (short story, non-Middle-earth)
1947 On Fairy-Stories (essay, not directly Middle-earth but significant)
1949 Farmer Giles of Ham (medieval fable, non-Middle-earth)
1954 The Fellowship of the Ring, part 1 of The Lord of the Rings
1954 The Two Towers, part 2 of The Lord of the Rings
1955 The Return of the King, part 3 of The Lord of the Rings
1962 The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book (poem)
1964 Tree and Leaf (On Fairy-Stories and Leaf by Niggle in book form)
1967 Smith of Wootton Major (non-Middle-earth)
1967 The Road Goes Ever On
35-Which of your Works were published by your son, Christopher?
Silmarillion,Arda and Middle Earth.
36-Why are you considered as the Father of Modern Fantasy?
I have had an indisputable and lasting effect on later Works, as well as on the genre as a whole. I am so creative. That’s why others consider me as The Father of Modern Fantasy.
37-What is your family’s root?
My family had its roots in the German Kingdom of Saxony.
38-What were your favourite books when you were a child?
Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll, stories about native Americans by George MacDonald and fairy books by Andrew Lang.
39-What is T.C.B.S “Tea Club and Barrovian Society”?It is a kind of group which three of my friends and I established for our fondness of drinking tea. We stayed in touch and in December 1914, we held a "Council" in London, at Wiseman's home. For me, the result of this meeting was a strong dedication to writing poetry.
40-From Which University did you graduate?
I graduated from the University of Oxford (where I was a member of Exeter College) with a first-class degree in English language in 1915.
41-What is the name of your wife?
Edith Mary Bratt
42-What about World War I?
I volunteered for military service and was commissioned in the British Army as a Second Lieutenant in the Lancashire Fusiliers. Later, I served as a communications officer during the Battle of the Somme. I lost some of my friends during the war. It was so horrifying.
43-How did you help people after the war?
I spent the remainder of the war alternating between hospitals and garrison duties, being deemed medically unfit for general service.
44-What did you do after the war?
During my recovery in a cottage in Great Haywood, Staffordshire, England, i began to work on what i called The Book of Lost Tales, beginning with The Fall of Gondolin. Throughout 1917 and 1918 my illness kept recurring, but i had recovered enough to do home service at various camps, and was promoted to lieutenant.
45-What was your first civilian job after World War I?
My first civilian job after World War I was at the Oxford English Dictionary, where i worked mainly on the history and etymology of words of Germanic origin beginning with the letter W.
46-What was your occupation when you were at University of Leeds?
In 1920 I took up a post as Reader in English language and in 1924, i was made a professor there. While at Leeds i produced A Middle English Vocabulary and (with E. V. Gordon) a definitive edition of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, both becoming academic standard works for many decades.
47-What did you do in University of Oxford after University of Leeds?
After The University of Leeds, i returned to Oxford as Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon, with a fellowship at Pembroke College, which chair he held until he was elected Merton Professor of English Language and Literature in 1945.
48-When did you write The Hobbit and The Lord of The Rings?
During my time at Pembroke, i wrote The Hobbit and the first two volumes of The Lord of the Rings, largely at 20 Northmoor Road in North Oxford, where a blue plaque was placed in 2002.
49-How do you know the events became after your death?
Birds told me and birds told me that you want to be killed!!!
50-What about Beawulf?
I wrote some critics about Beawulf. "Beowulf: the Monsters and the Critics”. Beowulf is among my most valued sources. And indeed, there are many influences of Beowulf in The Lord of the Rings.
51-What did you do after your duty in Oxford University as Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon?
In 1945, I moved to Merton College, Oxford, becoming the Merton Professor of English Language and Literature, in which post i remained until my retirement in 1959.
52-When did you complete The Lord Of The Rings(L.O.T.R)?
In 1948.
53-What do you think about industrialization?
I have a strong dislike for the side effects of it which i considered to be devouring the English countryside. This opinion can be seen in my work, most famously in the portrayal of the forced "industrialization" of The Shire in The Lord of the Rings.
54-How many children do you have?
I have four children: John Francis Reuel (17 November 1917 – 22 January 2003), Michael Hilary Reuel (22 October 1920 – 1984), Christopher John Reuel (born 21 November 1924) and Priscilla Mary Anne Reuel (born 18 June 1929).
55-How are you in your family life?
I am a very devoted family man.
56-What is “The Father Christmas Letters”?
I enjoyed inventing fantasy stories to entertain my children, so i wrote yearly Christmas letters from Father Christmas for them, creating a series of short stories, later compiled and published as The Father Christmas Letters.
57-Did you expect that your fictional Works would become popular?
Actually, i never expected my fictional Works to become popular.
58-What prompted you to write Lord of The Rings?
Through the intercession of a former student, i published a book i had written for my own children called The Hobbit.This prompted me to create my most famous work, the epic three-volume novel The Lord of the Rings.
59-What was your aim at writing Lord of The Rings?
I at first thought that The Lord of the Rings would tell another children's tale like The Hobbit, but it quickly grew darker and more serious in the writing.
60-How was your sales of the books?
The sale of my books was so profitable that i regretted i had not chosen early retirement.
61-Have you ever been awarded?
Yeah, i was awarded the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace on 28 March 1972.
62-Are there any important libraries for your studies of languages?
Yes, there are. They are the Bodleian Library at Oxford and the Memorial Library at Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (USA) which is usually just called the Marquette Library.
63-What are the names of your fiction Works and poetries?
Songs for the Philologists,The Hobbit,Leaf by Niggle,The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun,Farmer Giles of Ham,The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son,The Lord of the Rings (The Fellowship of the Ring,The Two Towers,The Return of the King)The Adventures of Tom Bombadil,Tree and Leaf,The Tolkien Reader,Smith of Wootton Major,The Road Goes Ever On.
64-What are the names of your Academic Works?
A Middle English Vocabulary,Sir Gawain and the Green Knight,The Devil's Coach Horses,Ancrene Wisse and Hali Meithad,The Name 'Nodens',Sigelwara Land,The Reeve's Tale,Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics,On Fairy-Stories,Sir Orfeo,On Fairy-Stories,Ofermod and Beorhtnoth's Death,Ancrene Wisse,English and Welsh,Tree and Leaf,Contributions to the Jerusalem Bible,The Second Edition of The Lord of the Rings.
65-What are your posthumous publications?
Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings,Sir Gawain and the Green Knight,Pearl (poem),Sir Orfeo,The Father Christmas Letters,The Silmarillion,Unfinished Tales,The Adventures of Tom Bombadil,The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien,The Old English "Exodus",Finn and Hengest,Mr. Bliss,The Monsters and the Critics,The History of Middle-earth,J. R. R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator,Roverandom,A Tolkien Miscellany,Beowulf and the Critics,Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings (full version) The Children of Húrin,The History of The Hobbit.
66-What are your audio recordings?
JRR Tolkien Reads and Sings his The Hobbit & The Lord of the Rings and
Poems and Songs of Middle-earth.
67-Have you ever thought that one day would your works become a film?
Yes, i have. I am in principle open to the idea of a movie adaptation. I sold the film, stage and merchandise rights of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings to United Artists in 1968.
68-How much time did Lord of the Rings take you to write?
I spent more than ten years writing the primary narrative and appendices for The Lord of the Rings.
69-What is the Children of Hurin?
It was my unfinished work.After my death my son spent 30 years to complete it.It is an epic poem.
70-Why the People’s of Middle Earth has the linguistic interest?
Because it has chapters addressing the Appendix on Languages in the third volume of LotR, and includes quite a bit of additional vocabulary, mostly in Quenya.
71-What is The War of the Jevels?
It is one of my books includes everything that is known about Valarin the language of the gods, as well as quite a bit of vocabulary and some phrases in various Elvish languages including Telerin.
72-What is Margot’s Ring about?
There is relatively little linguistic material in this book but there is a specialized vocabulary for some Christian religious concepts if you are interested.
73-Can you give me some information about Sauron Defeated?
This book has two versions of the King's Letter, the only substantial text in the Sindarin language. It also includes a great deal of vocabulary, grammar and syntax, and a specially adapted form of the tengwar. It also has a color frontispiece of the Lament for Númenor in both American and British editions.
74-What can you say about The War of The Ring?
This book includes some words and explanation of material that is seen in LotR including a little more Dwarvish and some Orkish.
75-What is The Treason of Isengard about?
It has some explanations and alternative forms of material that appears in LotR including a little bit of the Dwarvish language, and earlier versions of poems and phrases in Quenya and Sindarin; it also includes a series of cirth alphabets for writing Doriathrin, Noldorin and Old Noldorin.
76-What about The Lost Road and Other Writings?
It includes some poems and sentences in Quenya and also contains Lhammas and Etymologies which contains a magnificent vocabulary in about 8 different languages including Noldorin; the Ilkorin dialects, Doriathrin, Falassian and Danian; Telerin; Old Noldorin; Lindarin and Quenya.
77-What is Qenya?
It is an early form of the language which appears as Quenya in the LotR. Qenya material from these two books is usually identified with the abbreviation QL.
78-What about Gnomish Language?
It is an early form of the language of the Grey Elves, but it is not closely related to Sindarin, the language of the Grey Elves which appears in LotR. Gnomish material from these two books is usually identified with the abbreviation GL.
79-What about Unfinished Tales?
There are many words in a variety of languages and several interesting phrases or sentences, including material on the language of the Drug. The material is very difficult to date however. Only the dust jacket of the book includes the word karma and an illustration by me of this type of Numenorean helmet.
80-What is The Road Goes Ever On?
It is one of my poems. It has some late, very interesting explanations by Tolkien on the poems "Namárié and "Elbereth Gilthoniel" as well as Tolkien's own tengwar transcriptions of the two poems in Elvish, one in the standard mode for Quenya, the second in the mode of Beleriand.
81-What can you say about The Lord of The Rings?
It is comprised of three volumes. Originally published by Allen & Unwin in 1954-55 and by Houghton Mifflin in 1955-56; published in multiple editions, with many slight variations in the text. LotR is the best source for much of the material that we know of Elvish and other languages and their writing systems. In a 2004 poll inspired by the UK’s "Big Read" survey, about 250,000 Germans found The Lord of the Rings to be their favourite work of literature and in 2003 it is conducted by the BBC, The Lord of the Rings was found to be the "Nation's Best-loved Book"
82-What is Silmarillion?
It is an epic history that I started three times but never published. I hoped to publish it along with The Lord of the Rings, but publishers got cold feet; moreover printing costs were very high in the post-war years, leading to The Lord of the Rings being published in three books. However, my son published it after my death.
83-What do you think about Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
I was horrified by the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, referring to the Bomb's creators as "these lunatic physicists" and "babel-builders"
84-Who is Roy Campbell? What do you think about Roy Campbell?
He is South African poet, fellow Catholic, and right-wing extremist after a 1944 meeting. Since Campbell had served with Franco's armies in Spain, I regarded him as a defender of the Catholic faith, while C. S. Lewis composed poetry openly satirising Campbell's "mixture of Catholicism and Fascism.

3231050076 merve öztekin said...

ANSWERS OF DELL HYMES TO THE QUESTIONS
1-What is your full name?
My full name is Dell Hathaway Hymes.
2-When were you born?
June 7, 1927.
3-Where were you born?
I was born in Portland, Oregon.
4-Which university did you graduate from and when?
In 1950, I graduated from Reed College and earned my Ph.D. five years later from Indiana University.
5-Which universities did you attend after Indiana University?
I obtained my doctorate, I taught at Harvard University (1955-60) and the university of California at Berkeley (1960-65). I then joined the Department of Folklore and Folklife, and in 1975 became Dean of the Graduate School Education . (throughout this period I was a member of the Graduate Group in Linguistics.)
6-At which university did you become Professor of Anthropology and English?
I became Professor of Anthropology and English at the University of Virginia.
7-What did you teach at the University of Virginia?
I taught classes in linguistics, anthropology, Native American mythology, ethnopoetics and Native American poetry.
8-What have you done so far?
So much of what I have done or do has depended and depends on circumstances. I have never done anything I would myself describe as theoretical or ethnographic (in a strict sense of either term), although I have often written about ideas, and spent a fair amount time hanging around Indians.
9-What are you interested in?
I am interested in what is done in the study of the use of language, oral narrative and poetry, the history of anthropology and linguistics, Native Americans, theology.
10-Who influenced you in terms of linguistics?
I was influenced by a number of linguists who came before me, notably Boas and Edward Sapir.
11-What is your interest in your work?
I am particularly interested in how different language patterns shape different patterns of thought.
12-What is linguistic anthropology?
Linguistic anthropology is that branch of anthropology that brings linguistic methods to bear on anthropological problems, linking the analysis of semiotic and particularly linguistic forms and processes (on both small and large scales) to the interpretation of sociocultural processes (again on small and large scales).
13-What is ethnopoetics?
Ethnopoetics is an anthropological method of transcribing and analyzing folklore and oral narrative that pays attention to poetic structures within speech. In reading the transcriptions of Indian myths, for example, which were generally recorded as prose by the anthropologists who came before, I noticed that there are commonly poetic structures in the wording and structuring of the tale. Patterns of words and word use follow patterned, artistic forms.
14-What is communicative competence?
Communicative competence is a concept introduced by me and discussed and redefined by many authors. My this idea was that speakers of a language have to have more than grammatical competence in order to be able to communicate effectively in a language; they also need to know how language is used by members of a speech community to accomplish their purposes.
15-What are the aspects of communicative competence?
The aspects of communicative competence can be divided into two groups which are linguistic aspects and pragmatic aspects.
16-What are the linguistic aspects of communicative competence?
The linguistic aspects of communicative competence are phonology and orthography, grammar, vocabulary, discourse (textual).
17- What are the pragmatic aspects of communicative competence?
The pragmatic aspects of communicative competence are functions, variations, interactional skills and cultural framework.
18-What are phonology and orthography competences?
Phonological competence is the ability to recognize and produce the distinctive meaningful sounds of a language. Related to phonological competence is orthographic competence, or the ability to decipher and write the writing system of a language.
19-What is grammatical competence?
Grammatical competence is the ability to recognize and produce the distinctive grammatical structures of a language and to use them effectively in communication.
20-What is lexical competence?
Lexical competence is the ability to recognize and use words in a language in the way that speakers of the language use them. Lexical competence includes understanding the different relationships among families of words and the common collocations of words.
21-What is discourse (textual) competence?
Discourse competence is used to refer to two related, but distinct abilities. Textual discourse competence refers to the ability to understand and construct monologues or written texts of different genres, such as narratives, procedural texts, expository texts, persuasive (hortatory) texts, descriptions and others. These discourse genres have different characteristics, but in each genre there are some elements that help make the text coherent, and other elements which are used to make important points distinctive or prominent.
22-What is functional competence?
Functional competence refers to the ability to accomplish communication purposes in a language. There are a number of different kinds of purposes for which people commonly use language.
23-What is sociolinguistic competence?
Sociolinguistic competence is the ability to interpret the social meaning of the choice of linguistic varieties and to use language with the appropriate social meaning for the communication situation.
24-What is interactional competence?
Interactional competence involves knowing and using the mostly-unwritten rules for interaction in various communication situations within a given speech community and culture. It includes, among other things, knowing how to initiate and manage conversations and negotiate meaning with other people. It also includes knowing what sorts of body language, eye contact, and proximity to other people are appropriate, and acting accordingly.
25-What is cultural competence?
Cultural competence is the ability to understand behavior from the standpoint of the members of a culture and and to behave in a way that would be understood by the members of the culture in the intended way. Cultural competence therefore involves understanding all aspects of a culture, but particularly the social structure, the values and beliefs of the people, and the way things are assumed to be done.
26-What is ethnography of communication?
1-The ethnography of communication is directed at two points. One of them is the description and understanding of communicative behaviour in specific cultural settings. The other one is the formulation of concepts and theories to build a global metatheory of human communication.
2-It is one of my publications.
27-What is folklore?
Folklore is the body of expressive culture, including tales, music, dance, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, customs, and so forth within a particular population comprising the traditions (including oral traditions) of that culture, subculture, or group. It is also the set of practices through which those expressive genres are shared. The academic and usually ethnographic study of folklore is sometimes called folkloristics.
28-What is semiotics?
Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of sign processes (semiosis), or signification and communication, signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. It includes the study of how meaning is constructed and understood.
29-What is literary criticism?
Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
30-What is psycholinguistics?
Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language.
31-What is sociolinguistics?
Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. It also studies how lects differ between groups separated by certain social variables, e.g., ethnicity, religion, status, gender, level of education, etc., and how creation and adherence to these rules is used to categorize individuals in social class or socio-economic classes.
32-How can you explain “complex speech event”?
Complex speech event as a communicative event with the main role of a speech component is planned, organized, controlled, socially significant such as meeting, conference, summit,wedding…
33-How can you classify complex speech events?
Complex speech events can be classified as politics, business, law, education and mass media.
34-What is SPEAKING model (grid)?
I developed a mnemonic device to describe the elements that make up any speech. I referred to this as the SPEAKING model (grid). There are 8 parts of SPEAKING model (grid).
35-What are the parts of SPEAKING model (grid)?
The parts of SPEAKING model (grid) are setting and scene, participants, ends, act sequence, key, instrumentalities, norms and genre.
36-What are setting and scene?
The setting refers to the time and place while scene describes the environment of the situation.
37-What are participants?
Participants refer to who is involved in the speech including the speaker and the audience.
38-What are ends?
Ends are the purpose and goals of the speech along with any outcomes of the speech.
39-What is act sequence?
Act sequence is the order of events that took place during the speech.
40-What is key?
Key is the overall tone or manner of the speech.
41-What are norms?
Norms define what is socially acceptable at the event.
42-What is genre?
Genre is the type of speech that is being given.
43-What are your selected publications?
My selected publications are “Now I know only so far”, “Ethnography, Linguistics, Inequality”, “Vers la competence de communication”, “Studies in the History of Linguistic Anthropology”, “In vain I Tried To Tell You”, “Foundations in Sociolinguistics”, “Language in Society”, “Reinventing Anthropology”, “Language in Culture and Society” and “The Ethnography of Communication”.

Anonymous said...

ve 3231050062 Nilay SOLMAZ
(ÜSTTEKİ YORUM İÇİN)

Anonymous said...

3231050010 nurgül haveydi
3231050016 ayça soytürk
mccarthy john j.

Dear Mr.Can
as our linguist is still alive we contacted wth him by e-mail and asked him some of our questions.below there are some of his responses.
1) what is your name?
Mccarthy John J.
2) when and where were you born?
1953-Medford, Massachusetts
3) what is your latest book's name?
Doing Optimality Theory is in the hands of a copy-editor.It will be published by Blackwell early in 2008.
4)what do you think about Optimality theory?
in my view, it unites description of individual languages with explanation of language typology. as a phonologist I have always been impressed and sometimes overwhelmed by how the complexity and idiosyncrasy of each language's phonology is juxtaposed
with the clarity and aboundance of solid typological generalizations. even though, this is arguably the central research problem of phonolgy and of linguistic theory in general, progress in consolidating description and explanation has at best been
halting and occasionally retrograde.
5) what is the difference between gradience and categoricality?
In general, if a constraint distinguishes among different degrees of violation, it is gradient. Otherwise, it is categorical. The only commonly used gradient constraints are in the Alignment family. In my 2003 article, I argued that there are no
gradient constraints and that there are reasonable substitutes for gradient alignment constraints.
6)what is the morphological paradigms in phonolgy?
The paradigm of a word includes all of its inflected forms. In my 2005 paper, I argued that resemblance to other members of a paradigm is a factor that may determine the phonology of an inflected word
7)what do you think about semitic languages?
I have learned a lot about phonology and morphology by studying the structure of the Semitic languages. The Semitic languages I know best are Arabic, ancient Hebrew, and Akkadian.
8)can you explain the coda-onset asymmetry?
Various scholars have observed that there is an asymmetry in how medial consonant clusters undergo deletion or assimilation. In ...VC1C2V..., C1 may delete, but C2 almost never does. Or C1 may assimilate in place of articulation to C2, but C2 almost
never does. Or C1 may assimilate in place of articulation to C2, but C2 almost never assimilates in place of articulation to C1. In my most recent work, I've argued that this asymmetry can be explained in a derivational version of OT known as OT-CC
or harmonic serialism.
9)what is your book" hidden generalizations" about?
This book is a thorough reexamination of phonological opacity. It finds insights in the extensive literature on rule interaction of the 1970s. It describes and critiques the oft-voiced opinion that there are no authentic cases of opacity.
particularly important in Optimality Theory, which lacks the standard means of analyzing opacity, rule ordering.
Hidden Generalizations is the first monograph devoted exclusively to the problem of phonological opacity. Opacity arises when the conditions for or results of an active phonological process are not evident in the speech signal.
10)what is the assimilation in your view?
This view of place assimilation is similar to a theory of assimilation that is
common in the literature of autosegmental phonology. A mapping like /pamka/ →
[paŋka] is a case of feature-changing assimilation.
11)what is the main point in a harmonic improvement
The harmonic improvement requirement says that the successive forms in a
chain must increase in harmony relative to the constraint hierarchy of the language
in question.
12)how does harmonic improvement explain coda asymmetry ?
The key idea is that deletion or assimilation of aconsonant is possible only if that consonant first loses its place specification, and
loss of a place specification is harmonically improving under CODA-COND only when
coda consonants are affected.
13)can you give us some examples of deletion and asimilation?
Onset /h/ deletion in Chitimacha /keʔeːb hup/ keːbup ‘to bed’/waʃta heʧˀin/ waʃteʧˀin ‘Sunday, week’/ɡiti hujɡi/ ɡitujɡi ‘parched’Onset /h/ deletion in Tonkawa /nes-he-ʦane-oʔs/ neseʦnoʔs ‘I cause him to lie down’/nes-ha-na-kapa-/ nesankapa- ‘to
cause to be stuck’. Bidirectional /h/ assimilation in Afar /siˈdoːx hajˈto/ siˈdoːx xajˈto ‘third’/ˈtamahih sabbaˈtah/ ˈtamahis sabbaˈtah ‘because of this’Onset /h/ assimilation in Arbore /mín-h-áw/ mínnaw ‘my house ’ /ʔabás-h-áw/ ʔabássaw ‘my stew’
14)can you give us information about progressive place assimilation?
place assimilation is contingent on prior debuccalization, and debuccalization is a fate of codas but not onsets. I am therefore obliged to examine all known cases of progressive place assimilation, in order to determine whether they can be
with this theory.
15)what is the best known case of progressive place asimilation?
The best-known case of progressive place assimilation is probably German. Syllabic [n] assimilates in place to a preceding stop (obligatorily) orfricative (optionally). Syllabic [m] does not assimilate; in fact, it triggers assimilation of
a preceding [n]: [ajnəm] ~ [ajmm̩] ‘a, one (masculine singular dative)’.German (Wiese 1996) /ɡeːb-ən/ ɡeːbən ~ ɡeːbm̩ ‘to give’
/tʀaːɡ-ən/ tʀaːɡən ~ tʀaːɡŋ̩ ‘to carry’ /ʀaʊf-ən/ ʀaʊfən ~ ʀaʊfn̩ ~ ʀaʊfɱ̩ ‘to pluck
16)how do you define optimal paradigm theory?
In OP,candidates consist of entire inflectional paradigms. Within each candidate paradigm there is a correspondence relation from every paradigm member to every other paradigm member. Faithfulness constraints on thisintraparadigmatic correspondence
relation resist alternation within the paradigm. This model is illustrated and supported with a type of evidence that has not figured in previous discussions, the templatic structure of the Classical Arabic verb.
17)what is gradulness requirement?
The gradualness requirement says that chains can only make one change at a time. There areseveral ways of expressing the one-change-at-a-time intuition formally; in McCarthy (2006a), a single change is the addition of a single violation of a basic
faithfulness constraint.
18)what is "basic"?
“Basic” is a term of art referring to certain constraints of maximal generality.
19)what is debuccalization?
Deletion of oral place features from consonants is called debuccalization,because loss of place is loss of the constriction in the oral cavity. What’s left after debuccalization depends on what was there before. In the case of obstruents,
debuccalization typically leaves [h] or [ʔ] behind. When nasals debuccalize, the result is usually [N].
20)what do you think about coda debuccalization?
Coda debuccalization may be related to the weakness of consonantal place cues in this position, particularly when the coda consonant unreleased (Jun 1995, 1996, Steriade 2001a). My concern here, however, is not so much with understanding the why of
coda debuccalization as exploiting the fact of it.
21)what is the difference between faithfulnes constraints and markedness constraints?
Faithfulness constraints militate against input-output disparity, while markedness constraints impose restrictions on the output without reference to the input. For example, the input-output mapping /ab/ 6 §ab violates the
faithfulness constraint DEP (no epenthesis), and the output form §ab violates the markedness constraints NO-CODA and NOVCDOB (/*[son, +voice]).
22)what is "grandfather effect"?
Suppose that typological evidence has established that UG contains the classic OT markedness constraint M for example, some languages permit only Mobeying
forms, some languages have processes that actively eliminate M-violators,and so on. Now, suppose there is a language L where M is ranked below antagonistic faithfulness constraints, so it cannot compel unfaithful mappings. But M is
nonetheless observed to block processes in L from creating M-violating structures.M is emergent in L, in the same sense of emergence of the unmarked in McCarthy and Prince (1994). I will call this a grandfather effect.
23)what is the locus of violation?
This is the spot in the candidate where the constraint is violated; for example, the locus of violation of NOVCDOB in amba is the segment b.
24)what is t-correspondence?
This is a version of correspondence that has been transitivized, using the shared input to link two output candidates.
25)what do you think about Gnanadesikan's identification called "coalescence paradoxes"?
Coalescence is phonological fusion: two input segments
unite into a single output segment ς that shares characteristics of both its parents. In a coalescence paradox, ς has no source other than coalescence; in particular, when ς appears in inputs, it is treated unfaithfully. The paradox is that the same faithfulness
constraints that are satisfied when coalescence produces ς are also violated when input /ς/ is treated unfaithfully.
The best known example of a coalescence paradox comes from Sanskrit.sequences of a immediately followed by i or u merge into long e+ or o+ , respectively.
Coalescence in Sanskrit
/a+i/ 6 e+
/ca1+i2ha/ 6 ce+1,2ha and here
/a+u/ 6 o+
/ca1+u2ktam/ 6 co+1,2ktam and said

our user name: mccarthyjohn
password:8403

Anonymous said...

1.What is semantics?
Semantics is the study of linguistic meaning.It is concerned with what sentences and other linguistic objetcs express, not with the arrangement of their parts or their pronunciation.
2.What is meaning?
The meaning of each expression is the actual object it denotes,it is denotation.The meaning of each expression is the idea(or ideas)associated with that expression in the minds of speakers.The meaning of an expression is its use in the language community.The meaning of an expression is its sense satisfaction condition(truth conditions).
3.What is denotation?
It is a direct specific meaning as distinct from an implied or associated idea
4.What is connotation?
Connotation, on the other hand, refers to the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word.
5.Are there any fields related with semantics?
Yes they are syntax and pragmatics.
6.What is syntax?
Syntax is the study of rules that govern the structure of sentences and which determine their relative grammatically.
7.What is prgmatics?
Pragmatics is concerned with context dependent features of language.
Pragmatics deals with utterances, by which we will mean specific events, the intentional acts of speakers at times and places, typically involving language. It is sometimes characterized as dealing with the effects of context.
8.Can you tell me about the phenomena of synonymy and pararpharies?
It is the relation of sameness of meaning.
9.How about antonymy?
It is the semantic difference of a special sort, namely incompatibility of meanings.
What does semantic ambiguity mean?
It ist the multiplicity of senses versus uniqueness of sense.
10.How could you explain semiotics?
It is the study of sign processes(semiosis) or signification and communication, signs and symbols both individually and grouped into sign systems.It includes the study of how meaning is constructed and understood.
11.What is pure semiotics and descriptive semiotics?
They are pure and desciriptive investigation of semiotic.A pure investigation proceeds by carefully defining a number of concepts thought to be central to a sign system.an artificial sign system is then constructed.Descriptive investigation is to be the empirical study of the actual sign systems that have evolved among humans and aother animals.A descriptive study is connected with language use rather with construction of formal languages.
12.How could you explain syntactics?
Syntactics is a branch of semiotic that deals with formal relations between signs or expressions in abstraction from their signification and their interpreters.
13.Could you tell me more about syntactics?
It is concerned with the way sentences or constructed from smaller parts such as words and phrases.
14.What about modality?
Modality is the types of sign and the extent to which any set of signs is real or unreal
15.Could you give more information about modality?
According to Kiefer modality is the relativization of the utility of sentence meanings to a set of possible worlds.Talk about possible worlds can thus be constructed as talk about the ways in which people could conceive the world to be different .
16.Who is Charles Morris?
He is an American philosopher and semiotician who followed Charles Pierce (who is the the founder of the philosophical doctrine known as pragmatism, preferred the terms "semiotic" and "semeiotic.") in using the term semiotic and in extending the discipline beyond human communication to animal learning and use of signals.He divided semiotics into three group: syntax, semantics and pragmatics.He is most noted today for his monograph “Foundations of the Theory of Signs”.
17.What is theory of signs?
Theory of signs is a theory of reasoning and of cognition which asserts that all modes of thinking depend on the use of signs.It is argued in this theory that every thought is a sign, and that every act of reasoning consists of the interpretation of signs. Signs function as mediators between the external world of objects and the internal world of ideas. Signs may be mental representations of objects, and objects may be known by means of perception of their signs.
Sign is defined as any preparatory-stimulus which produces a disposition in the interpreter of the sign to respond to something which is not at the moment a stimulus. A sign prepares its interpreter to initiate ‘response-sequences’ of a particular ‘behavior-family’ in the absence of the kind of stimuli which would initiate response-sequences of that behavior-family. A sign may not always produce a response-sequence from its interpreter, but if it is an adequate sign, then it will produce a disposition in the interpreter to initiate the response-sequences which would occur if the object or event which is denoted the sign were the actual stimulus.
18.What is the theory of symbols?
A language is a system of simple and compound signs which have interpersonal and plurisituational signification.The word 'symbol' and 'sign' are source of many discussions.Symbol is to designate tokens of the some set while sign can be used for either a token or a type.For example,"moumtain"the word, each it is used and different words like" mountain" and "river" when they used.Thus "mountain" used twice is two different tokens of the same type while the words "mountain" and "river" are two different types.
19.What does artificial languages mean?
Artificial languages can be made up of any collections of symbols whatever, they are put according to certain rules and you might cite, such as mathematics or morse code.
20.What is behaviorism?
This is movement in psychology which emphasizes the machine like nature of human thinking and learning.It started with Ivon Pavlov who discovered that dogs could be conditioned with signs.
21.What is the relation between behaviorism and semantics?
Relation is that there is a close associative process accurring in order to make the symbol meaningful.If you tell me what are thinking it will not help me, I must find out for myself by observing your behaviour which of course also involves my listening the sort of sounds you utter.
22.What is general semantics?
General semantics is an educational discipline createde by Alfred Karzybski during the years 1919 to 1933.The name technically refers to the study of what Karzybski called semantic reactions or reactions of the whole human organism in its environment to some event-any event, not just perceiving a human-made symbol in respect of that event’s meaning.
23.Who is Alfred Karzybski?
Alfred Karzybski was a philiospher and scientist who is best remembered for developing the theory of general semantics. Accordin to him, the basic principles of general semantics, which include time-binding, are outlined in Science and Sanity, published in 1933. In 1938 Korzybski founded the Institute of General Semantics and directed it until his death.
24.What does time binding mean?
It is the human ability to pass information and knowledge between generations at an accelerating rate.Karzybski claimed this to be a unique capacity seperating us from other animals.
25.How could you explain semantic memory?
It refers to memory of meanings, understandings and other concept-based knowledge unrelated to specific experiences.
26.What is logical positivism?
It is a school of philosophy that combines empiriorism, the idea that observational evidence is indispensable for knowledge of the world, with a version of rationalism, the idea that our knowledge includes a component that is not derived from observation.
27.Could you be more specific about logical positivism?
It is a philosophical attitude which holds, among other things that metaphysics, more or less is bunk.According to the positivists, “verifiability principle” a statement is meaningful if and only if it can be proved true of false, at least in principle, by means f experience.
28.What is the principle of verifiability?
It is a principle that to be meaningful a sentence or proposition must be either verifiable by means of the five senses of tautology of logic.
29.What is operational definition?
It, when applied to data collection, is a clear, concise detailed definition of a measure.The need for operational definitions fundamental when collecting all types of data.It is particularly important when a decision is made about whether something is correct or incorrect or when a visual check is being made where there is a room for confusion.
30.When is it used?
Any time data is being collected it is necessary to define how to collect the data.People have different opinions and views and those will affect data collection. The only way to ensure consistent data collection is by means of a detailed operational definition that eliminates ambiguity.

31.What is instrumental conditioning?
It is one type of associative learning in which there is a contingency between a behaviour and the presentation of a biologically significant event. It resembles most closely the classic experiments from Skinner where he trained rats and pigeons to press a lever in order to obtain a food reward.
32.What is structural differentiation?
It is related to psychological and behavioral variables such as anonymity.
It is a concept associated with evolutionary theories of history and with structural functionalism.
33.What does basic interpretation mean?
Basic interpretation is a term used for those interpretations that can no longer be interpreted(broken down) into smaller parts.It is rather like the small particles of physical world that cannot be further sub divided.Act of interpretation are involved whenever you read a book or hear words spoken.It is rather similar to a decoding process and involves the transposition of symbols into ideas or ideas into symbols.
34.What is speech act theory?
The theory of speech acts is partly taxonomic and partly explanatory. It must systematically classify types of speech acts and the ways in which they can succeed or fail. It must reckon with the fact that the relationship between the words being used and the force of their utterance is often oblique. For example, the sentence 'This is a pig sty' might be used nonliterally to state that a certain room is messy and filthy and, further, to demand indirectly that it be straightened out and cleaned up. Even when this sentence is used literally and directly, say to describe a certain area of a barnyard, the content of its utterance is not fully determined by its linguistic meaning--in particular, the meaning of the word 'this' does not determine which area is being referred to. A major task for the theory of speech acts is to account for how speakers can succeed in what they do despite the various ways in which linguistic meaning underdetermines use.
35.What is bow-wow theory?
It is a theory in which language originated in onomatopoeic words that mimicked the sounds of the things they described, such as animal calls.
36.What is ding-dong theory?.
It is a theory in which language originated in natural connections between sound and meaning, such as imitation of physical sounds.
37.What is pooh-pooh theory?
It is a theory in which language originated in words derived from reflexive sounds used to express human emotions such as pain and anger.
38.What is yo-heave-ho theory?
It is a theory in which language originated in words based on grunts and groans of exertion, as in rhythmic chants that helped people work together.
39.What is prototype theory?
Prototype theory is a model of graded categorization in cognitive science, where all members of a category do not have equal status. Prototype theory also plays a central role in Linguistics, as part of the mapping from phonological structure to semantics
Systems of categories are not objectively "out there" in the world but are rooted in people's experience. These categories evolve as learned concepts of the world —meaning is not an objective truth, but a subjective construct, learned from experience, and language arises out of the "grounding of our conceptual systems in shared embodiment and bodily experience"
3231050103 Gül Duygu Yalçınkaya
3231050089 Nazlı Yeşilay
- SEMANTICS-

Anonymous said...

Louis Hjelmslev

1. What is your full name?
My name is Louis Hjelmslev
2. where and when were you born?
I was born on 3 October in 1899, in Copenhagen.
3.what is your theory?
Comparative linguistics, Glossematics, theory of the system of sign, linguistic circle of Copenhagen.
4. What is your father name and occupation?
My father’s name is Johannen Hjelmslev. My father is a mathematician and a prominent figure in Danish academic administration at the time, who served as rector of Copenhagen university.
5.When was the Linguisotic Circle of Cpenhagen founded?
The Linguistic Circle of Copenhagen was founded on 24 September 1931.
6. With whom did you found the Linguistic Circle of Copenhagen?
I founded the Linguistic Circle of Copenhagen together with Hans-Jorgen Uldall.
7. What is the main aim of the Linguistic Circle of Copenhagen?
The purpose of this founding was to create a study circle of active members who would develop a new kind of linguistic. Research later called structuralism. The circle was initially meant to criticize the prevailing ideas of linguists. At the time as well as to pinpoint their main flaws.
8. What is the Comparative Linguistics?
It is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness. It aims to construct language family, proto-languages and specify the changes that have resulted in the document languages.
9.What is the fundamental technique of Comparative Linguistics?
It is to compare phonological systems, morphological systems, syntax and lexicon of to or more languages using a technique known as the comparative method.
10.What is the difference between Prague school and glossematics?
My main critique to Prague school was that it is almost exclusively concentrated on phonetics; that is ,the phonetic realization of language. In my opinion, both content and expression present a two-fold nature, comprising for and substance.
11.What is the meaning of glossematics?
Glossematics is derived from the Greek word “glossa” which means “tongue” or “language”. Glossematics a school of linguistic analysis developed by me based on the study of distribution of glossemes.
12. What is the main aim of glossematics?
Glossematics sought to give more exact definition of the object of linguistics. this deals to be recognition of a bilateral character of two planes.1) the plane of content 2) the plane of expression
13. Why are you studying on glossematics?
My ultimate goal is the same as that of a physicist who studies atoms, to wit a more perfect understanding of the whole through a thorough study of the structure of the constituent part.
14.What is theory of system of sign?
A sign is a function between two forms: the content substance, and expression substance.
15. What is the meaning of content substance?
The content substance is the psychological and conceptual manifestation of the sign.It is understood as the meaning or purport. Inasmuch as they are taken on by the semiotic form.
16. What is the meaning of the expression substance?
The expression substance is the material substance. This substance can be sound, any material support whatsoever. For instance, hand movements, as is the case for sign language.
17. what is the phonemes according to Glossematics?
The substance is linguistically non-existent. language only comprises the relationship between linguistic elements, e.g. signs. For this reason the term phoneme is considered inappropriate because it only suggests sounds and it is not meaningful.
18. What is the meaning of the Metalanguge?
The language which is employed by the linguist is a metalanguage.
19.What is the meaning of metalinguistics?
The scientific study of language is known as metalinguistics.
20.What is your main occupation?
I had been a professor of Comparative Linguistics at the University of Copenhagen since 1937.since 1956 I was also director of the university’s institute for linguistics and phonetics, which I had founded.
21. Is there anyone who inspired your thoughts?
I delighted in pointing out in the work of my predecessors, particularly that of Rasmus Rask,is certainly most eminently exemplified in my carreer.
22. What is your difference from other Dannish linguists?
While dannish linguists concentrated on development of languages over time, I broke a new ground by putting aside the historical approach. I study language as a system, the language itself.
23. What are your major books?
Principes de Grammaire Generale. La Categorie Descas
Prolegomena to a theory of language . resume of a theory of language
25. What is the content of La Categorie Descas?
I made a major contribution to linguistics. I analyzed the general category of case in detail, providing ample, empirical material supporting my hypothesis. It is a continuous evolving theory On epistemology of linguistics.
26.What is about Principes de Grammaire Generale?
I aimed ambitiously at providing a general theoretical foundation for the study of language.
27. What are your researches?
Estudes baltiques, Rask’s manuscripts,T ravaux du Cercle linguistique de Copenhague, Acta Linguistica Hafniensia


28. What does your research Estudes baltiques deal with?
It is a rather traditional work of historical phonology dealing with Baltic phonology and especially with principles governing supra segmental factors in theses language; tone, accent and quantity made in 1932.
29.What is Rask’s manuscripts?
It is about the development of a general typology of linguistic structure in terms of which a basically, a historical comparison of languages would be possible. I published 3 volumes of it with commentary.

Esra ARSLAN 3231050132
Güleser AKSOY 3231050046

Anonymous said...

MORPHOLOGY

1)Morpheme : What is morpheme?

A morpheme is the smallest indivisible unit of a language that retains meaning, meaningful and indivisible units in a given language. The term morpheme properly refers to a syntactic (or morphological) terminal node and its content, not to the phonological expression of that terminal, which is provided as part of a Vocabulary item.
First, let's look at the operative word meaningful in the above definition. The phonemes /kh/, /æ/, and /t/ are used in the word cat [khæt], and each one is as small as they come, but they are not morphemes. Why? Because they are not "full of meaning." All these three particular phonemes do is help us think of three specific speech sounds—they don't have meaningfulness in the sense of defining anything other than themselves.


2) Morphology: What is morphology?

Morphology is the study of the internal structure of words, a sub-discipline of linguistics focused on the study of the forms and formation of words in a language. While words are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, it is clear that in most (if not all) languages, words can be related to other words by rules.
For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog, dogs and dog-catcher are closely related. English speakers recognize these relations by virtue of the unconscious linguistic knowledge they have of the rules of word-formation processes in English. Therefore, these speakers intuit that Dog is to dogs just as cat is to cats, or encyclopædia is to encyclopædias; similarly, dog is to dog-catcher as dish is to dishwasher. The rules comprehended by the speaker in each case reflect specific patterns (or regularities) in the way words are formed from smaller units and how those smaller units interact in speech. In this way, morphology is the branch of linguistics that studies such patterns of word-formation across and within languages, and attempts to explicate formal rules reflective of the knowledge of the speakers of those languages.


3) Fusional/Inflected Language : What is fusional language? What is inflected language?

Fusional/Inflected language is a language in which morphemes are squeezed together and often changed dramatically in the process. Morphemes in fusional languages are not readily distinguishable from the root or among themselves. Several grammatical bits of meaning may be fused into one affix. Morphemes may also be expressed by changes in stress, pitch or tone, which are of course inseparable from the root, or by internal phonetic changes in the root (such as vowel gradation or Ablaut). English is a good example of a fusional language. Also most Indo-European languages are fusional to a varying degree.


4) Agglutinative Language : What is agglutinative language?

Agglutinative languages have words containing several morphemes that are always clearly differentiable from one other in that each morpheme represents only one grammatical meaning and the boundaries between those morphemes are easily demarcated; that is, the bound morphemes are affixes, and they may be individually identified. Agglutinative languages tend to have a high number of morphemes per word, and their morphology is highly regular.
Agglutinative languages include Korean, Turkish and Japanese.


5) analytic/isolating language: What is analytic language? What is isolating language?

Analytic language is a language in which a great majority of morphemes remain independent words. Analytic languages show a low ratio of words to morphemes; in fact, the correspondence is nearly one-to-one. Sentences in analytic languages are composed of independent root morphemes. Grammatical relations between words are expressed by separate words where they might otherwise be expressed by affixes, which are present to a minimal degree in such languages. There is little to no morphological change in words: they tend to be uninflected. Grammatical categories are indicated by word order (for example, inversion of verb and subject for interrogative sentences) or by bringing in additional words (for example, a word for "some" or "many" instead of a plural inflection like English -s). Individual words carry a general meaning (root concept); nuances are expressed by other words. Finally, in analytic languages context and syntax are more important than morphology.
Analytic languages include some of the major East Asian languages, such as Chinese, and Vietnamese. Additionally, English is moderately analytic (probably one of the most analytic of Indo-European languages).


6) Synthetic language : What is Synthetic language?

Synthetic languages form words by affixing a given number of dependent morphemes to a root morpheme. The morphemes may be distinguishable from the root, or they may not. They may be fused with it or among themselves (in that multiple pieces of grammatical information may potentially be packed into one morpheme). Word order is less important for these languages than it is for analytic languages, since individual words express the grammatical relations that would otherwise be indicated by syntax. In addition, there tends to be a high degree of concordance (agreement, or cross-reference between different parts of the sentence). Therefore, morphology in synthetic languages is more important than syntax.



7) Polysynthetic language : What is polysynthetic language?

In 1836, Wilhelm von Humboldt proposed a third category for classifying languages, a category that he labeled polysynthetic. (The term polysynthesis was first used in linguistics by Peter Stephen Duponceau who borrowed it from chemistry). These languages have a high morpheme-to-word ratio, a highly regular morphology, and a tendency for verb forms to include morphemes that refer to several arguments besides the subject (polypersonalism). Another feature of polysynthetic languages is commonly expressed as "the ability to form words that are equivalent to whole sentences in other languages". Of course, this is rather useless as a defining feature, since it is tautological ("other languages" can only be defined by opposition to polysynthetic ones, and vice versa).

Many Amerindian languages are polysynthetic. Inuktitut is one example, and one specific example is the phrase: tavvakiqutiqarpiit which roughly translates to "Do you have any tobacco for sale?".

Note that no clear division exists between synthetic languages and polysynthetic languages; the place of one language largely depends on its relation to other languages displaying similar characteristics on the same scale.




8) Lexeme: What is lexeme?

The term "word" is ambiguous in common usage. To take up again the example of dog vs. dogs, there is one sense in which these two are the same "word" (they are both nouns that refer to the same kind of animal, differing only in number), and another sense in which they are different words (they can't generally be used in the same sentences without altering other words to fit; for example, the verbs is and are in The dog is happy and The dogs are happy).
The distinction between these two senses of "word" is arguably the most important one in morphology. The first sense of "word," the one in which dog and dogs are "the same word," is called lexeme. The second sense is called word-form. We thus say that dog and dogs are different forms of the same lexeme. Dog and dog-catcher, on the other hand, are different lexemes; for example, they refer to two different kinds of entities. The form of a word that is chosen conventionally to represent the canonical form of a word is called a lemma, or citation form.


9) Paradigm: What is paradigm?
A paradigm is the complete set of related word-forms associated with a given lexeme. The familiar examples of paradigms are the conjugations of verbs, and the declensions of nouns. Accordingly, the word-forms of a lexeme may be arranged conveniently into tables, by classifying them according to shared inflectional categories such as tense, aspect, mood, number, gender or case. For example, the personal pronouns in English can be organized into tables, using the categories of person, number, gender and case.


10)Morphosyntax : What is morphosyntax?

The part of morphology that covers the relationship between syntax and morphology is called morphosyntax, and it concerns itself with inflection and paradigms, but not with word-formation or compounding.


11) Allomorphy: What is allomorphy?

One of the largest sources of complexity in morphology is that this one-to-one correspondence between meaning and form scarcely applies to every case in the language. In English, we have word form pairs like ox/oxen, goose/geese, and sheep/sheep, where the difference between the singular and the plural is signaled in a way that departs from the regular pattern, or is not signaled at all. Even cases considered "regular", with the final -s, are not so simple; the -s in dogs is not pronounced the same way as the -s in cats, and in a plural like dishes, an "extra" vowel appears before the -s. These cases, where the same distinction is affected by alternative changes to the form of a word, are called allomorphy.
For example, let's take the word "cats." We already determined that "cat" was a morpheme, but we have another morpheme added to it, cat + s. "S" is a morpheme, because it has meaning in this context—more than one—and it cannot be broken down any further.
In English, there are other morphemes that mean "more than one." Cats, dogs, horses, and oxen all have a different morpheme that means "more than one" at the end of them. Cat + [s], dog + [z], horse + [əz], ox + [ən]. So, [s], [z], [əz], and [ən] are all allomorphs of the same morpheme. All four allomorphs sound different when you pronounce them, and they are represented by different phonetic alphabet symbols, but they all have the exact same meaning, so they are allomorphs.



12)Morphophonology: What is morphophonology?

The study of allomorphy that results from the interaction of morphology and phonology is called morphophonology.


13)Lexical Morphology: What is lexical morphology?

Lexical morphology is the branch of morphology that deals with the lexicon, which, morphologically conceived, is the collection of lexemes in a language. As such, it concerns itself primarily with word-formation: derivation and compounding.


14)Distributed morphology: What is distributed morphology?

Within the school of linguistics called Generative Grammar, distributed morphology is a framework for theories of morphology developed in 1993 by Morris Halle and Alec Marantz.
The central claim of distributed morphology is the idea that there is no unified lexicon as in earlier generative treatments of word-formation. Instead, the morphemes that make up words are manipulated in various ways by syntax. The actual lexical items are not inserted into the sentence until syntactic operations are finished. In other words, the structure of the sentence is worked out before there are any actual words present. Words are drawn from the mental lexicon that best match up with the structure that the syntax has created.
For example, to create the sentence, The dogs ate the meat, the word dogs is inserted after a noun root with the meaning [DOG] combines with a feature [plural]. At the end of the derivation, the English word dogs is inserted in the appropriate spot - that is, where the syntax decides to place the subject. Also, a verbal root meaning [EAT] combines with a [past tense] feature and [3rd person plural] feature. The closest matching word in English is ate, which is inserted wherever the syntax has determined that the verb should go. We should note that the [3rd person plural] feature is not actually matched in English, because there is a total lack of person/number agreement in the past tense in English:


15) Morphological typology: What is morphological typology?

Morphological typology is a way of classifying the languages of the world (see linguistic typology) that groups languages according to their common morphological structures. First developed by brothers Friedrich von Schlegel and August von Schlegel, the field organizes languages on the basis of how those languages form words by combining morphemes. Two primary categories exist to distinguish all languages: analytic languages and synthetic languages, where each term refers to the opposite end of a continuous scale including all the world's languages.


16) Bound morpheme : What is bound morpheme?

Bound morphemes are morphemes that can occur only when attached to root morphemes. Affixes are bound morphemes. Common English bound morphemes include: -ing, -ed, -er, and pre-.
Morphemes that are not bound morphemes are free morphemes.


17) Free morpheme: What is free morpheme?

In linguistics, free morphemes are morphemes that can stand alone, unlike bound morphemes, which occur only as parts of words. In the English sentence colorless green ideas sleep furiously, for example, color, green, idea, sleep and furious are all free morphemes, whereas -less, -s and -ly are all bound morphemes.


18)Syntactic hierarchy: What is syntactic hierarchy?

The syntactic hierarchy (from smaller to larger units) is as follows:
#Morpheme#Word#Phrase#Sentence(clause)#Text
The term morpho-syntactic hierarchy is a synonym.


19) morpho-syntactic hierarchy : What is morpho-syntactic hierarchy?

The term morpho-syntactic hierarchy is a synonym for syntactic hierarchy.


20) Morphological merger: What is morphological merger?

Morphological Merger, proposed first in Marantz 1984, was originally a principle of well-formedness between levels of representation in syntax. What Merger does is essentially 'trade' or 'exchange' a structural relation between two elements at one level of representation for a different structural relation at a subsequent level.

Other possible question patterns:

Tell me about.....?
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How could you define.....?
Can you define........?

3231050021 EMRE ERDAL
3232050041 HAZAL KANGALGİL

Anonymous said...

bekir berk,necdet avcı
language acquisition

1-what’s the significant difference between first language acquisition and second language acquisition?
-learning a first language is something every child does successfully, in a few years and without the need for formal lessons.but second is need to a formal lesson.


2-what’s language acquisition?
-The process of learning a language. From birth through age five, children subconsciously acquire the basics of their home language
-A subconscious process through which the ELL acquires, rather than learns language. It is the “knowing about” language rather than learning academic language.
-Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human

3-what’s the main theoretical approach to child language acquisition?
-cognitive theory (jean piaget),imitation and positive reinforcement, innateness of certain linguistic features(connected with Noam Chomsky)

4-can imitation alone possibly account for all language acquisition?
-Children learn by imitating and repeating what they hear. Positive reinforcement and corrections also play a major role in language acquisition. But this is the behaviorist view in 50’s , since imitation cannot alone possibly account language acquisition

5-what’s the importance of innate in language acquisition?
- Children are born with an innate capacity for learning human language. Humans are destined to speak. It is assumed that children are pre-programmed, hard-wired, to acquire such things.
- Some innate feature of the mind must be responsible for the universally rapid and natural acquisition of language by any young child exposed to speech.

6-has a relationship between language and thought?
-according to the expressivist, the primary function of language is to enable speakers to convey the content of their thoughts to hearers.
-briefly; when language is used in the normal way, the speaker has a thought with a certain content and chooses words such that on the basis of those words the hearer will be able to recognize that the speaker has a thought with that content.





7-what’s babbling?
- Nonmeaningful sequences of consonants and vowels produced by infants
- is a stage in child language acquisition, during which an infant appears to be experimenting with uttering sounds of language, but not yet producing any recognizable words
- Begins at several months of age. Characterized by indiscriminate utterance of speech sounds, many native speech sounds may be absent, some are naturally harder to pronounce( /r/ /th/)

8-what is the one word stage and what specialities can be seen in this stage?
-Children understand multi-word utterances, but utter only single words. They use words like cookie, drink, bad, no, but never functional words like in the and

-Words generally monosyllabic (Consonant + Vowel).

9-what is the stages of acquisition and in which ages are contained?
- acquisition has four stages ; 1. The Babbling Stage (around 6 months), 2. The One-Word stage (around 1 year), 3. The Two-Word stage (around 2 years), 4. Child reaches the grammatical complexity of utterances of colloquial adult language (around 3 years)

10-tell me about the two word stage?
- (Usually function words and morphemes are initially missing to, the,
can, is, etc.). This stage, including two word and longer utterances, is
therefore often referred to as telegraphic speech.
- Function words and morphemes come in gradually, and there tends to be
a specific order in which function morphemes are acquired, e.g. plural
morpheme `s' is acquired early.Children seem to constantly change/add rules.

11-what about reinforcement theory?
- Children figure out what's correct because parents reward proper uses of
language and discourage improper uses.however; Parents seldom correct the form of child's utterances, usually just content
- Parents teach children language by
correcting errors and rewarding their grammatical utterances

11-what is motherese ?
- The name given to the restricted sort of language spoken by mothers and other primary caregivers to their young children, the main function of which is to teach the child the basic function and structure of language. Adults make an unconscious effort to stretch the signals, exaggerate the acoustic components that are exactly the dimensions that the baby needs to pay attention to in order to form the mental maps for speech.

12-what is prosody?
- The distinctive variations of stress, tone, pitch and timing in spoken language.

14-tell me about language acquisition device(lad)?
- language acquisition device is a hypothetical mechanism in the human brain that enables any normal human to learn any of the 5000+ human languages (or any possible human language). Its existence has never been empirically demonstrated and, within the present approach, it would seem to be unnecessary to assume any LAD as a distinct, self-encapsulated unit.

15-tell me about critical period in language acquisition?
- The critical period hypothesis for language acquisition (CP) proposes that the outcome of
language acquisition is not uniform over the lifespan but rather is best during early childhood

16-what is the differences between acquisition and learning?
- Children acquire language through a subconscious process during which they are unaware of grammatical rules. This is similar to the way they acquire their first language. In order to acquire language, the learner needs a source of natural communication. Language learning, on the other hand, is not communicative. It is the result of direct instruction in the rules of language. In language learning, students have conscious knowledge of the new language and can talk about that knowledge. They can fill in the blanks on a grammar page.

17-tell me about the Acquisition-Learning hypothesis
- According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second language performance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'. The 'acquired system' or 'acquisition' is the product of a subconscious process very similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their first language. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act.

18- how about natural order hypothesis?
- this hypothesis ... states that we acquire the rules of language in a predictable order, some rules tending to come early and others late. The order does not appear to be determined solely by formal simplicty and there is evidence that it is independent of the order in which rules are taught in language classes
19-what is the monitor hypothesis?
-The Monitor hypothesis explains the relationship between acquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former. The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. According to Krashen, the acquisition system is the utterance initiator, while the learning system performs the role of the 'monitor' or the 'editor'.

20-what about the input hypothesis?
- humans acquire language in only one way by understanding messages or by receiving comprehensible input.

21-what is the affective filter hypotesis?
- The Input hypothesis is only concerned with 'acquisition', not 'learning'. According to this hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses along the 'natural order' when he/she receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. For example, if a learner is at a stage 'i', then acquisition takes place when he/she is exposed to 'Comprehensible Input' that belongs to level 'i + 1'. Since not all of the learners can be at the same level of linguistic competence at the same time.

22-what is the interlanguage?
- The learner's knowledge of the L2 which is independent of both the L1 and the actual L2. This term can refer to: i) the series of interlocking systems which characterize acquisition; ii) the system that is observed at a single stage of development (an 'interlanguage'); and iii) particular L1/L2 combinations.

Anonymous said...

3231050078 Zehra Taşdemir
3231050048 Berker Yiğiter

LOUIS HJELMSLEV
our user name:louishjelmslev
password:5001

1)What is your full name?
My name is Louis HJELMSLEV
2)When were you born?
October 3, 1899
3)Where were you born?
I born in Copenhagen, Denmark.
4)Which university did you graduate?
I studied in Copenhagen, Prague and Paris.
5)What is the topic that you studied?
I studied comparative linguistics.
6)Is there anyone who inspired your ideas?
My ideas basically formed by Copenhagen School of linguistics.Also,I born into an academic family.
7)What is the Liguistics Circle of Copenhagen?
ıt was founded by me and a group of Danish colleagues on 24 September 1931. Their main inspiration was the Prague Linguistic Circle, which had been founded in 1926. It was in the first place a forum for discussion of theoretical and methodological problems of linguistics. Initially, their interest lay mainly in developing an alternative concept of the phoneme, but it later developed into a complete theory which was coined glossematics, and was notably influenced by structuralism.
8)can you give me some detailed informations about your colleagues on the works of the linguistic circle of copenhagen?
Membership of the group grew rapidly and a significant list of publications resulted, including an irregular series of larger works under the name Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Copenhague. A Bulletin was produced, followed by an international journal for structuralistic research in language, Acta Linguistica (later called Acta Linguistica Hafniensia), which was founded with the members of the Prague Linguistic Circle.
9)When did you find it?
September 24,1931
10)What is your first work and when did you publish it?
Principes de grammaire générale, I finished it in 1928.
11)How could you explain the topic of Principes de grammaire générale?
I analysed the general category of case in detail,providing ample empirical material supporting my hypotheses.It is a continuous evolving theory on the epistemology of linguistics.
12)What is epistemology?
Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy which is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge.Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth,belief and justificstion.It also deal with the means of production of knowledge,as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims.In other word,epistemology primarily addresses the following questions:"what is knowledge?","how is knowledge acquired?" and "what do people know?"
13)What is glossematics?
Glossematics is a system of linguistic analysis which based on study of the distribution,and the relationships between,the smallest meaningful units of a language.
14)What does "glossematics"?
glossematics:the word was partially derived from the Greek "glossa" which means "tongue" or "language".
15)What is Prolegomena to a Theory of Language?
It is my essay.It was published in 1943,on the Foundation of the Language Theory.It is critiques the then-prevailing methodologies in linguistics as being descriptive and not systematising.I proposed a linguistic theory intended to form the basis of a more rational linguistics and a contribution to general epistemology.For example, I persuaded foreign scholars to learn Danish.
16)Do you share the ideas of Ferdinand de Saussure about language?Why?/Why not? Or how about your ideas about "what is language?"
Like Ferdinand de Saussure,I accepted language as a system of signs.Besides, language has to viewed as a system of figurae or ultimate small units.
17)for you what is the point of view of the linguist on meaning?
it is that of the form of content. Even if the content substance is important, one has to analyse it from the point of view of the form. Not only do pictures and literature manifest the same organising principles, but, more broadly, seeing and hearing must be taken to be identical on a deeper level.
18)Against what do you react about semiotics?
In proposing semiotics, I react against the conventional view in phonetics that sounds should be the focus of enquiry. This begins a more serious philosophical tradition. When an individual's ear detects sound waves, a cognitive process begins to translate the waveforms into meaningful data. Similarly, when the eye receives light carrying data about the world, it must be interpreted. I react against the notion that images had to be translated into a phonetic "substance" or a concretely perceived object in order to be understood.
19)What is the true focus of linguistics in your opinion?
It should be the language and the human culture that continually reinvents it, and all society's memory of its accumulated knowledge preserved through language. This was a challenging but constructive argument at the time, and remains one that still has relevance today.
20)what are the two substances manifest sign function?
every sign function is also manifested by two substances: the content substance and the expression substance. The content substance is the psychological and conceptual manifestation of the sign. The expression substance is the material substance wherein a sign is manifested. This substance can be sound, as is the case for most known languages, but it can be any material support whatsoever, for instance, hand movements, as is the case for sign languages.
21)did you lectured at any university?
yes,in Aarhus university.

Anonymous said...

burcu içli_3231050071
tansu ünal_3231050095

__LEONARD BLOOMFIELD__

1_Is there a book which consists of your whole study on linguistics? / Do you have a book…?
Yes, it is named “LANGUAGE” which was first published in U.S.A in 1933.

2_What is language (according to you)? / How do you perceive…?
People rarely observe language, taking it rather for granted, as we do breathing or walking. However, I think that language plays a great part in our life. It is what distinguishes man from the animals.

3_What is your way of studying language? / How do you think …?
In my opinion, language should be studied in a scientific way, by careful and comprehensive observation.

4_Do you think it is useful to make generalizations about language? / What do you think about...?
I think the only useful generalizations about language are inductive generalizations. Features which we think ought to be universal may be absent from the very next language that becomes accessible.

5_What is the use of language in your terminology? / Can you explain…?
It is not merely proper writing or correct speech. Writing is just a recording of language by visible marks, and correct speech can only be achieved with the observation of normal speech. We find our way with the light of “speech utterances”.

6_Can you give an example of speech utterances?
Suppose that Jack and Jill are walking down a lane. Jill is hungry. She sees an apple in a tree. She makes a noise with her larynx, tongue, and lips. Jack climbs the tree, takes the apple, brings it to Jill, and places it in her hand, Jill eats the apple.

7_What is stimulus and response? / What are the roles of…? / What does an act of speech utterance include? / What are the components…?
Speech utterance consists of 3 parts: A. Practical events preceding the act of speech B. Speech C. Practical events following the act of speech. A is speaker’s stimulus. (Jill is hungry and makes a noise.) C is hearer’s response. (Jack takes the apple and gives it to Jill.)

8_What is “speech community”? / What do you mean by…?
A speech-community is a group of people who interact by means of speech. Other phases of social cohesion, such as economic, political, or cultural, bear some relation to the speech-communities, but do not usually coincide with it.

9_What is “phoneme” (in your view)?
The phonemes of a language are not sounds, but merely features of sound which the speakers have been trained to produce and recognize in the current of actual speech-sound –just as motorists are trained to stop before a red signal.

10_What do you think a phoneme study should include?
I think it should include two main investigations: “phonetics”, in which we study speech-events without reference to the meaning, and “semantics”, in which we study the features of meaning in terms of speech-sound, situation and response.

11_How can language be learnt? / How do you think…?
Language can only be learnt (by trial and error) from native speakers acting like an informant being closely observed and imitated.

12_How do you define “phonetics”? / What is…? / What do you think…?
Phonetics is the study of either the sound-producing movements of the speaker (physiological phonetics) or the resulting sound-waves (physical or acoustic phonetics).

13_What is “phonology”? / How do you define…? / What do think…?
It is the study of significant speech-sounds, in other name “practical phonetics”.

14_How do you define “semantics”? / What is…? / What do you think…?
It’s the relation of the sound-producing movements, the sound-waves, and the action of the hearer’s ear-drum to the meaning, showing that a certain type of speech-sound was uttered in certain types of situations and led the hearer to perform certain types of response.

15_What are “distinctive” and “non-distinctive” features?
Non-distinctive features are parts of the acoustic features of utterances which are indifferent, and distinctive features of a language are only parts which are connected with meanings (semantic features) and essential to communication.

16_Can you give an example of distinctive and non-distinctive features?
When I asked a London cabman to drive to the Comedy Theatre, I spoke the American form of the first vowel in comedy, and he took it as a representative of the vowel in “car” –so that I was really asking for a Carmody Theatre, which does not exist.

17_What are the chief types of phonemes?
a) Noise-sounds: stops, trills, spirants. b) Musical sounds: nasals, laterals, vowels.

18_What is “meaning”? / How do you define…? / What do think…?
It is the situation in which the speaker utters a linguistic form and the response which it calls forth in the hearer. In order to give an accurate definition of “meaning”, we should have a scientifically accurate knowledge of everything in the speakers’ world.

19_How do you approach “grammatical forms”? / What is…?
I assume that each linguistic form has a constant and definite meaning, different from the meaning of any other linguistic form in the same language.

20_Can you analyze grammatical form with an example?
In the utterance “I’m hungry”, we assume a) that the differences in sound are irrelevant b) that the situations of speakers contain common features and irrelevant differences c) that this linguistic meaning is different from any other form in the language.

21_What are “favourite sentence-forms”?
a) actor-action phrases (whose structure is that of the actor-action construction: “John ran away.”) b) command phrases (infinitive verbs with or without modifiers: “Come!”)

22_What are “sentence-types”?
a) full sentences (when a favourite sentence form is used as a sentence) b) minor sentences (when any other form is used as a sentence)

23_What is “syntax”? / How do you define…? / What do think…?
It is the study of sentence types, phrases and certain types of substitution. You should not confuse it with morphology, which deals with grammatical constructions.

24_What is “taxeme”? / How do you define…? / What do think…?
It is the minimal unit of syntax, just as the phoneme is the minimal unit of phonology. A taxeme of selection is present whenever elements from different form classes can appear in a given environment.

25_Can you give an example for “taxeme”? / Can you explain…?
For example, both a verb form (e.g. run) and a noun form (e.g. John) can appear with the taxeme of exclamatory final pitch. But, in the first case the result is a command and in the second case the result is a call.

26_What are your three types of “agreement” (in syntactic analysis)?
Concord, government and cross reference. You can visit http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/1c/7b/f2.pdf for further information.

27_What is “morphology”? / How do you define…? / What do think…?
The study of constructions in which bound forms appear among the constituents. But you should not confuse it with syntax. Morphology includes the constructions of words and parts of words while syntax includes the constructions of phrases.

28_What are morphologic types?
a) Composition (compound words containing more than one free form), b) secondary derivation (derived words containing one free form), c) primary derivation (derived words containing more than one bound form).

29_Can you give examples for “free” and “bound” forms?
Free forms are generally the roots in English (e.g. door); bound forms are generally prefixes and suffixes (e.g. re-, -ism).

30_What is a “substitute”? / How do you define…? / What do think…?
It is a linguistic form or grammatical feature which replaces any one of a class of linguistic forms. For example, in English the substitute “I” replaces any singular-number substantive expression as long as it denotes the speaker of the utterance.

31_What is “domain” of a substitute?
A substitute replaces only forms of a certain class. For instance the domain of the substitute “I” is the English form-class of substantive expressions.

32_What are “form classes”?
a) lexical forms (which consist of phonemes) , b) grammatical forms (which consist of taxemes)

33_What is “phememe”? / How do you define…? / What do think…?
It is the smallest and meaningless unit of linguistic signalling (“phonemes” in terms of lexicon and “taxeme” in terms of grammar.)

34_What is “noeme”? / How do you define…? / What do think…?
It is the smallest meaningful unit of linguistic signalling (“morpheme” in terms of lexicon and “tagmeme” in terms of grammar.)

35_What is “linguistic form”? / How do you define…? / What do think…?
It is the meaningful unit of signalling, smallest or complex (“lexical form” in terms of lexicon and “grammatical form” in terms of grammar.)

36_What do you think about “linguistic change”?
In my opinion, it is inevitable at all times. The English of the King James Bible or of Shakespeare is unlike the English of today. The 14th century English of Chaucer is intelligible to us only if we use a glossary.

37_Can you tell me about your “comparative method”? / What is…? / How do you define…?
Some languages resemble each other to a degree because of different features such as historical and universal factors or with no significance whatever. I focus on these underlying connections (even if there is none) with this method.

38_Can you give me an example of a comparative analysis?
Let’s take the word “hand”, comparatively [hant] in Dutch, [hnd] in English, [hand] in Swedish (all Germanic languages); in contrast, [mÎ] in French, [ru’ka] in Russian, [kŠsi] in Finnish (outside the Germanic group).

39_What is the influence of local dialects on the standard language?
Standard languages arise from local dialects. Standard English, for instance, is the modern form of the old local dialect of London.

40_Can you explain “dialect geography” with an example?
If we take standard Dutch and standard German, we come across separate forms for the words of “I” and “make”: [ik] in Northern, [ix] in Southern; ['ma:ke] in Northern, ['maxen] in Southern dialects.

41_How do you define “phonetic change” briefly?
If we believe that the resembling forms are not due to accident, then we must infer that the differences between the resemblant forms are due to changes in the speech-habits. (E.g. stone; [sta:n] in old English, [stown] in present-day English).

42_How do you define “analogic change” briefly?
We see that the analogic habits are subject to displacement. (E.g. at a time when the plural of “cow” was the irregular form “kine”, the speakers might create a regular form “cows”, which then entered into rivalry with the old form).

43_How do you define “semantic change” briefly?
Innovations which change the lexical meaning rather than the grammatical function are classed as semantic change. (E.g. the word “meat (mete in old form)” used to mean what we know as food today).

44_How do you define “cultural borrowing” briefly?
The borrowed features come from a different language in cultural borrowing and they undergo some adjustments. (E.g. a French-origin word “chauffeur” [∫ofœ:r] was adapted to English as ['∫owfə]).

45_How do you define “intimate borrowing” briefly?
It occurs when two languages are spoken in what is topographically and politically a single community. (E.g. English borrowings like “spaghetti” from Italian immigrants and “hamburger” from German immigrants).

46_How do you define “dialect borrowing” briefly?
Dialect borrowing is the borrowing of speech-habits within a community which is largely one-sided; from a dominant group to the minor one, from the prestigious to the weak, from the leader to the humble person…etc.

47_Are you a strict structuralist? / Do you see the language just as a structure?
Actually, many people took me wrong. I never said that meaning should be excluded. Quite contrarily, I claim that semantics is much of importance if we want to see the underlying facts of a speech utterance (see A and C incident). However, our knowledge of the world is so imperfect and the science has not progressed far enough to identify all the situations and responses in a speech-utterance that we can rarely make accurate statements about the meaning of a speech-form.

Anonymous said...

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Johnrogerssearle-hayef
1-What are key terms?
llocutionary act, speech act, intentionality, social reality, false dictonomy, appropriate concepts, artifical intelligence, philosophy, scientific vision, rationality,
2-Can you give some info about yourself?
I was born in 1932 in Denver Colorado.I work Mills Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley.. I own a large amount of property in Berkeley, California.I Am a well-known for my 1980s lawsuit which led the California Supreme Court to overturn the city's rent control policy in what came to be known as the "Searle Decision". The city government claimed this led to "significantly increased rent levels in Berkeley". I was awarded the Jean Nicod Prize in 2000.
3-What is the basis of your opinion?
Philosphy of language, mind and conciousness
4-What is the vital point of speech act according to you?
In my opinion the core of which is an analysis of promising, illocutionary acts consist of an illocutionary force and a propositional content. Thus in my analysis the sentences:
1-Sam smokes habitually. 2-Does Sam smoke habitually? 3-Sam, smoke habitually! 4-Would that Sam smoked habitually!
Each indicates the same propositional content (Sam smoking) but differ in the illocutionary force indicated-a statement, a question, a command and an expression of desire respectively.

5-Can you give any info about your early work HOW TO DO THİNGS WİTH WORDS?
My early work, which to a great extent established my reputation as an estimable philosopher, was on speech act. It builts upon the efforts of my Oxford teachers J. L. AUSTEN and P. F. STRAWSON. In particular my Speech Acts sets out to take up and develop Austin's account of illocutionary acts.
6-Have you had any problem when discussing to find appropriate concepts?
In 1969, I did not provide any definition of the technical term "illocutionary force", nor of the technical notion of an "illocutionary act". For this reason, the account did not support any scholarly answer to such a question as to whether answering a question, or expressing love, or cursing actually are illocutionary acts or not, and if (not) so, why (not).
7-Can you say there is not a fixed idendification for illocutioary words?
Exactly, true. According to my later account presented in Intentionality, which differs in several fundamental ways from the one suggested in Speech Acts, illocutionary acts are characterised by their having conditions of satisfaction and a direction of fit.
8-Have you ever confronted anyone, critisizing your ideas and works negatively and harshly?
Naturaly I have.My speech-act theory has been challenged by several thinkers, and in a variety of ways. A wide-ranging critique is in F C Doerge illocutionary acts.Whole collections of articles referring to my account is: Burkhardt 1990 and Lepore / van Gulick 1991. See also Jacques Derrida's Limited Inc. and my brief reply in The Construction of Social Reality.
9-Could you give some detailed info about your prominent book İNTENTİONALİTY?
Probably, you are in complexity about title. True? Intentionality, not to be confused with intentionality-with-an-s, is a technical philosophical term meaning roughly aboutness. It refers to mental states and their associated objects, such as written words, which refer to things in the world. I also tries to introduces a technical term, the Background, which has been the source of much philosophical discussion ın this book.
10-Is the concept backround was used by you first?
Exactly not. The concept of a Background is similar to the concepts provided by several other thinkers, including Wittgenstein's private language argument. I also itroduces it the source of much philosophical discussion
11-Do you mention about consciousness a significant affair, under the title of intentionality?
Building upon my views upon Intentionality, I presented a view concerning consciousness in my book The Rediscovery of the Mind . I argue that, starting with behaviorism much of modern philosophy has tried to deny the existence of consciousness, with little success.
12-What about philosophy?
I accept that philosophy has been trapped by false dictonomy.
13-What is false dictonomy? I think ıt is an uncommon concept.
It means the world consists of nothing but objective particles in fields of force, but consciousness is clearly a subjective first-person experience.
14-As a linguistic, what is your scientific vision?
İdeas proposed certainly should be objective and supportted by logical evidents. Science's goal is to make statements which are epistemically objective.
15-Well, in this case what is ontological subjectivity?
There are certain things (including all conscious experiences) which are ontologically subjective, are experienced subjectively. For example, that someone suffers from back pain is epistemically objective -- whether someone is having back pain is something that medical science happily discusses -- but the pain itself is ontologically subjective; the pain is only experienced by the person having it.
16-I want to ask a question about artifical intelligence because of being interested in your field.Could you share your idea about AI with us?
Of course.Assume you do not speak Chinese and imagine yourself in a room with two slits, a book, and some scratch paper. Someone slides you some Chinese characters through the first slit, you follow the instructions in the book, write what it says on the scratch paper, and slide the resulting sheet out the second slit. To people on the outside world, it appears the room speaks Chinese -- they slide Chinese statements in one slit and get valid responses in return -- yet you do not understand a word of Chinese. Ergo, no computer can ever understand Chinese, since all it can do is the same syntactic manipulations as a man in the Chinese room.
17-What is social reality?
I extended my inquiries into observer-relative phenomena by trying to understand social reality.




18-Could you give an example?
Yes I can… I begin by arguing collective intentionality "we're going for a walk is a distinct form of intentionality, not simply reducible to individual intentionality "I'm going for a walk with him and I think he thinks he's going for a walk with me and thinks I think I'm going for a walk with him and ...". However, I believe collective intentionality is sustained by individual people: each person thinks "we're going for a walk", there's no "group mind" that has this thought.
19-Could you explain it clearly.
Yes. I argue institutional facts arise out of collective intentionality through logical rules of the form "X counts as Y in C". Thus, for example, filling out a ballot counts as a vote in a polling place, getting so many votes counts as a victory in an election, getting a victory counts as being elected president in the presidential race, etc.
20-What do you think about rationality?
Standard notions of rationality are badly flawed. According to the Classical Model, rationality is seen as something like a train track: you get on at one point with your beliefs and desires and the rules of rationality compel you all the way to a conclusion. I believe rationality is not a system of rules, but more of an adverb. We see certain behavior as rational, no matter what its source, and our system of rules derives form finding patterns in what we see as rational.
21-Shortly what is your manner in general??
In contrast to the works of many other philosophers, my writings are largely (but not throughout) written in a clear and conversational style, supposedly with the goal that the educated layperson should be able to understand them and follow their argument.sometimes I try to make, broad new claims.
22-What do your writings refer to?
To a large extent, my writings refer only rarely to the works of other philosophers, and they often fail to do so even where they heavily build upon them
23-Is there any masterpiece giving you inspiration?
William P. Alston's "Linguistic Acts" ; one of the main principles of my account of speech acts, namely that the minimal unit of linguistic communication is the 'illocutionary act', is tacitly borrowed from Max Black's "Austin on Performatives" furthermore, in my "Austin on Locutionary and Illocutionary Acts" both the main thesis and the main argument are tacitly adopted from Black's 1963 paper

24-What are your selected works?
HOW TO DO THİNGS WİTH WORDS, Construction of Social Reality, Intentionality, The Rediscovery of the Mind, The Construction of Social Reality, Rationality in Action,

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Anonymous said...

username:johnrupert
password:firtian
Questions and Answers about John Rupert Firth and his theories;

1-When were you born?
I was born in 1890.
2-Where were you born?
I was born in Keighley,Yorkshire,England.
3- Which university did you graduated from?
I graduated from Leeds Universty in 1911.
4-What is your profession?At which universities did you work?
I was a professor of English at the University of Punjab in Lahore, India, from 1919 to 1928. I was Senior Lecturer in phonetics at University College in London from 1928 to 1938, and was chair of the Department of General Linguistics at the University of London from 1944 to 1956
5-Can you give us some information about your career?
Of course, I attended the local grammar school,
studied for a BA and MA in history at Leeds University, and briefly taught the subject
at a Leeds teacher training college. Just after the start of the First World War, I went
to India, still part of Britain’s Empire, to work for the Indian Education Service. I
also undertook military service in India during the war (and in Afghanistan and
Africa), returning to the imperial Education Service after the armistice as a professor
of English at the University of the Punjab. There I began my study of the area’s
languages, which were to provide linguistic data for later publications; my time in
India had a lasting effect on my career.Then I returned to Britain.
6-How long did you stay in Britain and what did you study there?
I returned to Britain, first for a year, in 1926, then, long-term, in 1928, to a
position in *Daniel Jones’s Department of Phonetics at University College London,
interspersing my UCL teaching with part-time work at the London School of Economics, what was to become the School of Oriental and African Studies, and Oxford. While at the LSE, I met *Bronislaw Malinowski, then working on language
from an anthropological point of view. Some of Malinowski’s ideas were influence
me considerably – much more than those of *Jones, who I regarded as
theoretically barren and intellectually insular (I did, however, rate highly the work of
the experimental phoneticians at UCL).
7-In what ways were you influenced by Bronislaw Malinowski?
I made semantics central to his approach to linguistics and developed the latter's theory of the ‘context of the situation’.

8-What are your main Works?
I wrote two books, Speech 1930 and The Tongues of Men 1937. My most important academic articles are found in Papers in Linguistics 1934–51 1957 and Selected Papers of J R Firth 1968.
9-Which fields did you study ?
I studied phonological features of speech such as stress, intonation, and nasalization, which, I emphasized, varied considerably in different languages.
10-In what ways were you influenced by Bronislaw Malinowski?
I made semantics central to his approach to linguistics and developed the latter's theory of the ‘context of the situation’.
11- What can you say about ‘context of the situation’?
‘a speech event’ is an ‘expression of the language system from which it arises and to which it is referred’, ‘we can only arrive at some understanding of how’ ‘language’ ‘works’ if we ‘take our facts from speech sequences’ ‘operating in contexts of situation which are typical, recurrent, and repeatedly observable’ To avoid invoking ‘mental processes’, I suggest that any ‘memory context or causal context’ must be ‘linked up with the observable situation’ ‘A stated series of contexts of situation’ may thus contribute to ‘a theory of reciprocal comprehension, level by level, stage by stage’
12-1-What are your main contributions to linguistics,Firth?
They are collocation and polysystemicism .I developed an idiosyncratic view of linguistics that has given rise to the adjective 'Firthian'. Central to this view is the idea of polysystematism.
13-What is polysystematism then?
-It’s an approach to linguistic analysis based on the view that language patterns cannot be accounted for in terms of a single system of analytic principles and categories.
14- And what about collocation?
Collocation is the arrangement of words and other linguistic elements in language
15- What is your conception of language?
I see language as a set of events which speakers uttered, a mode of action, a way of ‘doing things’, and therefore linguists should focus on speech events themselves. This rejected the
common view that speech acts are only interesting for linguists to gain access to the
‘true’ object of study – their underlying grammatical systems.
16- What is semantic?
I propose to use the term ‘semantics’ to describe my whole approach to
language, which is to link all levels of linguistic analysis (from phonetics to
lexicography) with their contexts and situations. I do not maintain this usage
elsewhere in my writings, but I do extend the meaning of ‘meaning’ in remarkable
ways, writing about the ‘phonological meaning’ of phones and the ‘grammatical
meaning’ of constituents.
17- What is prosodic approach‘
The investigation of words, pieces, and longer stretches of text leads to the prosodic approach’, which ‘emphasizes synthesis’ and ‘refers’ ‘features’ ‘to the structure taken as a whole’ .I hope this approach can deal with a range of issues, including ‘syllable structure’, ‘stress’, ‘intonation’, ‘quantity’, and ‘grammatical correlations’, in ‘the piece, phrase, clause, and sentence’. The approach is also ‘more comprehensive than traditional’ ‘word studies’, fits the ‘view that syntax is the dominant discipline in grammar’, and may be ‘useful grammatically’ and ‘practically in teaching pronunciation’, as well as relevant to ‘fieldwork on unwritten languages’, ‘the study of literature’, ‘literary criticism’, and ‘stylistics’, maybe even to ‘historic linguistics’
18- What is the difference between the phonetics and phonology according to prosodic analysis?
Prosodic Analysis further assumes a clear separation between ‘phonetics’ and
‘phonology’. Phonematic units and prosodies are not assumed to have ‘intrinsic’ or
obvious phonetic content. They must be accompanied by ‘exponency’ statements
which state formally how a particular piece of phonological structure maps onto the
phonetics.
19- Why did you mostly focuse on phonology?
•I mostly focused on phonology as it was generally the pilot science of linguistics at the time (1940s/1950s)and I was also influenced in part by the English School of Phonetics (Hart, Bell, Sweet, etc...)
20- What is instrumentalist approach?
This means that there is no expectation that a linguist
is describing the uniquely ‘true’ (or ‘psychologically real’) form of a language; the analytical categories assumed in linguistic analysis are not thought to have ontological status, and linguists are perfectly free to make use of whatever set of theoretical constructs are
necessary to make an economical and effective description of a particular linguistic feature
21-What is apophony?
It is the internal vowel alternations that produce such related words as”sing, sang, sung, song “ •rise, raise”
22-What is phonesthemes?
Phonesthemes are of critical interest to students of the internal structure of words because they appear to be a case where the internal structure of the word is non-compositional; i.e., a word with a phonestheme in it has other material in it that is not itself a morpheme.
23-Can you explain it?
For example, the English phonaestheme "gl-" occurs in a large number of words relating to light or vision, like "glitter", "glisten", "glow", "gleam", "glare", "glint", and so on; yet, despite this, the remainder of each word is not itself a morpheme (i.e., a pairing of form and meaning); i.e., "-isten", "-ow", and "eam" do not make meaningful contributions to "glisten", "glow", and "gleam".
24-What are the aspects of phonaestheme?
They are distribution and motivation.
25-What is distribution?
It is the set of words where they occur in a language, and the extent to which their appearance in these words is statistically different from what would be expected at chance.
26-How can you describe The Tongues of Man and Speech?
They are easily readable and written in a clear and expository style, befitting their intention as introductory, popular works. They contain an exposition on the nature of speech and language in terms which are still useful and relevant. These two volumes give an introduction to linguistics in general and also supply the key to my linguistics in particular and, by extension, to much of current British linguistics as a whole.


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Anonymous said...

Esra Basak AYDINALP 3233040011
Türköz Özgüler
Jan 3 What is phonetic act
For example: John Smith turns to Sue Snub and says ‘Is Jeff’s shirt red?’, to which Sue replies ‘Yes’. John has produced a series of bodily movements which result in the production of a certain sound..this is phonetic act Edit
Jan 3 What is fresh start?
ı consider more generally the senses in which to say something may be to do something, or in saying something we do something Edit
Jan 3 Can you give an example to speech act?
For example, if you say “I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth," and the circumstances are appropriate in certain ways, then you will have done something special, namely, you will have performed the act of naming the ship. Edit
Jan 3 what is the action which performative sentences 'perform'
That is speech act Edit
Jan 3 What are the two features that you characterise performative utterences?
First, to utter one of these sentences is not just to "say" something, but rather to perform a certain kind of action.
Second, these sentences are not true or false; rather, when something goes wrong in connection with the utterance then the utterance is, as ı put it, "infelicitous", or "unhappy." Edit
Jan 3 How do you characterise performative utterances?
I characterise them by two features Edit
Jan 3 What is performative utterances?
After introducing several kinds of sentences which ı assume are indeed not truth-evaluable, ı turn in particular to one of these kinds of sentences, ı deem performative utterances. Edit
Jan 3 Why is how to do things with words is most influential for you?
In it ı attack what was at my time a predominant account in philosophy, namely, the view that the chief business of sentences is to state facts, and thus to be true or false based on the truth or falsity of those facts. Edit
Jan 3 What is your most influential work according to you?
How to Do Things With Words is most influential for me.. Edit
Jan 2 who also used your term performative?
Some American and German writers on biblical HERMENEUTICS Edit
Jan 2 who modified your work after you criticised yourself many times?
Searle, Wolterstorff, F. Recanati, Daniel Vanderveken and many others have built upon, and modified,my work. Edit
Jan 2 what is the fourth part?
Fourth, ı established the huge variety of types of illocutionary acts that language may perform. Verbs such as reckon, grade, assess, rank, rate, may, in the first person, constitute 'verdictives' Edit
Jan 2 what is the third one?
Third, it also entails what WOLTERSTORFF calls 'count-generation'. An utterance may count as the performing of an action, as when the raising of an umpire's finger may count as a declarative verdict. Edit
Jan 2 what is the second one?
Second, much religious language is indeed the performing of an action. Sincerely to say 'I repent' constitutes an act of repentance; it is not an attempt to inform God of a state of mind that God may already know. Edit
Jan 2 what is the first one?
First,ı offer a semantic or performative approach to truth. 'It is true' is more like adding my signature than stating a fact. Edit
Jan 2 how do you seperate your relevance to the philosophy of religion?
ı seperate them to four main parts.. Edit
Jan 2 what do you focus on as most fertile for philosophy or conceptual clarification
I rightly focus on illocutions.. Edit
Jan 2 what perlocutions involve?
Perlocutions often, perhaps always, involve the use of quasicausal power rather than convention. Thus 'I persuade' usually embodies perlocutionary, rather than illocutionary, action. Edit
Jan 2 What lies at the heart of your works?
At the heart of my works lie the destination between 'locutions' (roughly uttering a sentence with a meaning), illocutionary acts' (which perform acts in the saying of the utterance) and 'perlocutionary acts' (which perform acts by the saying o Edit
Jan 2 Like whom do you note the 'asymmetry' in logical terms between first-person uses and third-person uses of such verbs as 'I believe', 'we mourn', 'I give and bequeath', 'I bet', 'I forgive' and 'I promise'
Like WITTGENSTEIN Edit
Jan 2 Would the utterance 'I baptize this infant 2704' constitute an operative act of baptism?
Since presuppositions are entailed 'for a certain performative utterance to be happy, certain statements have to be true' Edit
Dec 31 How did you stake your reputation?
An utterance such as 'I promise' performs an action in the very saying of it: 'by using this formula ... I have bound myself to others, and staked my reputation' Edit
Dec 31 what is your book "How to Do Things with Words" is about?
My 1955 Harvard lectures on performative utterances are published as "How to Do Things with Words" Edit
Dec 31 what your essay other minds introduces?
it introduces the category of PERFORMATIVE UTTERANCES by distinguishing such first-person utterances as 'I promise', 'I warn' from merely descriptive sentences Edit
Dec 31 what did you most taught in the oxford university?
I taught and practised the method of 'analytical' or 'Ordinary Language' philosophy
http://http://www.enotalone.com/article/5217.html Edit
Dec 18 How do we Distinguish Illocutionary from Perlocutionary Acts?
Ways this line is different from physical acts & their consequences, nomenclature marks line instead of consequences, physical nomenclature focuses on effects: "I shot her" vs. "I pulled the trigger Illocutionary nomenclature focuses on act: "I apolo
Illocutionary nomenclature focuses on act: "I apologized" vs. "She relented"The Two Types of Perlocutionary Effects Achievement of a Perlocutionary objectProduction of Perlocutionary Sequel Edit
Dec 18 What are the examples of an illocutinary act?
asking or answering a question, pronouncing sentence, making an appointment or an appeal, making an identification,giving a description Edit
Dec 18 What is the force of an illocutionary act?
FORCE: HOW AN UTTERANCE IS TO BE TAKEN NECESSARY (CONVENTIONAL) EFFECT ONE EFFECT WHICH CAN BE FORMALIZED
http://http://www.sou.edu/English/Hedges/Sodashop/RCenter/Theory/People/austin.htm Edit
Dec 18 how do we do Performative/Constative Distinction?
Found in/felicity could apply to Constatives also Relation to facts can apply to Performatives in some cases Failed to find grammatical test for performative Hope that every P could be reduced or translated to explicit P
Not sure that, even when explicit, a P is performative some explicit P seem true or false
http://http://www.sou.edu/English/Hedges/Sodashop/RCenter/Theory/People/austin.htm Edit
Dec 18 What are the 3 Ways that A Statement Implies Truth Of Other Statements?
1> Entailsif p entails q, then no p entails no q2> Impliesstating a constative implies that you believe it; i.e. "the cat is on the mat" implies I believe it is3 Presupposes "J's children are bald" presupposes J has children
http://http://www.sou.edu/English/Hedges/Sodashop/RCenter/Theory/People/austin.htm Edit
Dec 18 What do you explain in "How to do things with words?"
In How to Do Things with Words (1961), the transcription of Austin's James lectures at Harvard, application of this method distinguishes between what we say, what we mean when we say it,
and what we accoply by saying it, illocution, locution, perlocution and speech act rules
http://http://http://www.philosophypages.com/ph/aust.htm Edit
Dec 18 What do you explain in " A plea for excuses"?
In "A Plea for Excuses" (1956), Austin explained and illustrated his method of approaching philosophical issues by first patiently analyzing the subtleties of ordinary language.
http://http://www.philosophypages.com/ph/aust.htm Edit
Dec 18 What are expositives?
The expositives are difficult to define. They may plain how our utterance fit in to the course of an argument or conversation, how we are using words and in general are expository.
Examples are I reply , I argue I concede, I illustrate, I assume , I postulate Edit
Dec 18 What are behavitivies?
Behavitives are a very miscellanous group , and have to do with attitudes and social behaviour Examples are apologizing, congrulating, commending, condoling, cursing, challenging Edit
Dec 18 What are commissives?
Commissives are typified by promosing or otherwise undertaking , they commit you to doing something
İt include also declarations or announcements of intention which are not promises , and also rather vague things which we may call espousals, as for example siding with.
They have obvious connexions with verdictives and exercitives. Edit
Dec 18 What are Exercitives?
Exercitives are the exercising of powers, rights, or influence. Examples of appointing, voting, ordering, urging, advising, warning Edit
Dec 18 What are verdictives?
Verdictives are typified by the giving of a verdict , as the name implies , by a jury , arbitrator, But they need not be final , they may be an estimate, reckoning, or appraisal.
It is essentially giving something - fact or value- which is for different reasons hard to be certain about. Edit
Dec 18 How classes of utterance are there according to their illocutionary force?
There are five classes. Verdictives, Exercitives, Commissives, Behabitives and expositives. Edit
Dec 18 What are the last types of infelicities?
Misunderstandings, a type of infelicity to which all utterances are probably liable and mistakes and underacting under duress Edit
Dec 18 What is misexecution( B2)?
The procedure must be executed by all participants completely. These are called hitches. Edit
Dec 18 What is misexecution( B1)?
The procedure must be executed by all participants correctly. These are called flaws. Edit
Dec 18 What is teh second infelicity(A2)?
The particular persons and circumstances in a given case must be appropriate for the invocation of the particular procedure involved.These are called misapplications. Edit
Dec 18 What is the first infelicity (A1)
There must exist an accepted conventional procedure having a certain conventional effect , the procedure to include the uttering of certain words by certain persons in certain circumstances. This is called misapplication. Edit
Dec 18 How many types of infelicities are there?
There are six types of infelicities. Misfired act, Misexecutions, abuses, insincerities, misinvocations, misexecutions, misapplications, Hitches Edit
Dec 16 What is a perlocutionary act?
perlocutionary acts are the effects of the utterance on the listener, who accepts the bet or pledge of marriage, is welcomed or warned, regret, fear, hope, Edit
Dec 16 what is perlocution?
what we actually accomplish by saying it. Edit
Dec 16 what is an illocutionary act?
Illocutionary acts are the real actions which are performed by teh utterance , where saying equals doing as in betting, welcoming, warning, request, promise, satement, threat, question Edit
Dec 16 what is an illocution?
what we intend to Edit
Dec 16 what is a locutionary act ?
Locutionary acts are simply the speech acts that have taken place. Edit
Dec 16 what is a locution?
what we say Edit
Dec 16 what is speech act theory?
As I state in my book called " how to do things with words?" speech act theory i th study of what we do when we talk: stating facts , asking questions, making requets , expressing feelings
Many utterances are equivalent to actions. When someone says " I name this ship" or I now pronounce you man and wife " the utterance creates a new social or psychological reality
Speech act theory broadly explains these uterances as having three aspects : locutionary, illocutionary, perlocutionary acts. Edit
Nov 8 Who developped your approach?
My student Searl developped my approach furtherly
http://http://speech-acts.generalanswers.org/ Edit
Nov 8 Why did you published few?
Because , much of my work was published posthumously from reconstructions of my various talks.
http://http://atheism.about.com/library/glossary/general/bldef_austinjohn.htm Edit
Nov 8 Did you published very much?
No, I published a few during my career.
No, not just a few
http://http://atheism.about.com/library/glossary/general/bldef_austinjohn.htm Edit
Nov 8 what are your major works?
How to do things with words?,Philosophical papers, Sense and Sensibilia
http://http://atheism.about.com/library/glossary/general/bldef_austinjohn.htm Edit
Nov 8 What are your fields of specialization?
analytic Philosophy,Epistemology,Philosophy of Language,Moral Philosophy Edit
Nov 8 what did you do during World War II?
During World War II I had a commission in military intelligence. Edit
Nov 8 What is speech act theory?
the theory that dictates that each utterance is an action.
Speech act theory claims that each speech is the realization of an action at the same time.
The speech work is better described when "in saying something, we do something," like after the minister says, "I now pronounce you husband and wife," or even an action performed by means of language, like describing something ("It is snowing.").
http://http://speech-acts.generalanswers.org/ Edit
Nov 8 What is pragmatics?
Pragmatics is the study of speech acts.
It is speech act theory.
speech act theory Edit
Nov 8 Do you work on pragmatics?
yes, I do Edit
Nov 8 when did you work as a lecturer in oxford?
in 1952-1960
1952-1960 Edit
Nov 3 How do you explain the relation between language and philosopy ?
I argued that the words in our language make up all of the distinctions which need to be made; hence, understanding them will allow us to understand what they already describe.
My interest in the philosophy of language also extended to the philosophy of action.
we can best understand human action by examining what humans say about action and by becoming more sensitive the ot subtle nuances which exist in our descriptions of actions Edit
Nov 3 Which fields did you study?
philosopy and linguistics
language
thoughts and senses Edit
Nov 3 Which fields did you study?
philosopy and linguistics
language
thoughts and senses Edit
Nov 3 Where did you do your career?
in Oxford Edit
Nov 3 Where do you come from?
UK
Lanchester Edit
Nov 3 What is your date of birth?
1911 Edit
Nov 3 Where were you born?
Lanchester
UK
England Edit
Nov 3 What is your name?
J.L.Austin
John Langshaw
John Langshaw Austin

Anonymous said...

1. What is the definition of lexicology?

Lexicology comes from “lexiko” and is a part of linguistics, which studies words, their nature and meaning, words' elements, relations between words (the semantical relations), words groups and the whole lexicon.

2. When was lexicology developed?
Lexicology is a single branch of Linguistics and was developed in the 1960`s.

3. What are the branches of lexicology?

There are four branches of lexicology: onomasiology, semasiology, etymology and phraseology.

4. What is the aim of onomasiology?

The goal of onomasiology is to find the linguistic forms or the words, that can stand for a given concept, idea or object. This word is derived from two ancient Greek words ”onoma”, which means name and “ logos”. That can be translated as “science” or “study of”. Therefore onomasiology could be the study of designations.

5. What is semasiology and what is the relation between onomasiology and semasiology?

Onomasiology is cloesly connected to semasiology. Both these branches of linguistics deal with the relationship between words, reproduction and reality. Therefore it is helpful to interlink both disciplines. While onomasiology starts from the concept, semasiology starts from the form and ask for their meaning. It is concerned with meaning and the change of meaning. This discipline is also derived from an ancient Greek word. “Semasia” means to “signify or name”.


6. What is phraseology?

Another branch of lexicology is phraseology. It studies compound meanings of two or more words like in "raining cats and dogs", because the whole meaning of that phrase is much different from the meaning of words included alone. Phraseology examines how and why such meanings come in everyday use, and what possibly are the laws governing these word combinations. Phraseology also investigates idioms.

7.Why is etymology used?

Etymology is closely used to clarify some questionable meanings, spellings, etc., and is also a matter of lexicography. There are also exist some etymological dictionaries which give words with their historical change and development.

8. What does lexicology in everyday life?
A good example of lexicology at work, that everyone is familiar with, is that of dictionaries and thesaurus. Dictionaries are books or computer programs (or data bases) that actually represent lexicographical work, they are opened and purposed for the use of public.As there are many different types of dictionaries, there are many different types of lexicographers.

9. What is the difference between lexicologists and lexicographers?

lexicography is the theory and practice of composing dictionaries. Sometimes lexicography is considered to be a part or a branch of lexicology, but the two disciplines should not be mistaken: lexicographers are the people who write dictionaries, they are at the same time lexicologists too, but not all lexicologists are lexicographers! It is said that lexicography is the practical lexicology, it is practically oriented though it has its own theory, while the pure lexicology is mainly theoretical.



10. Is there any related field to lexicology?

Yes, computational lexicology is a related field to linguistics and deals with the computational study of dictionaries and their contents.

11. What is the lexicon theory?

Lexicon theory, in contrast to both lexicology and lexicography, is the study of the universal, in particular formal properties of lexica, from the points of view of theoretical linguistics, general knowledge representation languages in artificial intelligence and lexicon construction.

12. Which languages influenced the English language?

The english language was influenced by several languages. For example Hindi, Irani (Persian and Kurdish) ,Armenian ,Albanian , Hellenic (Greek) , Baltic (Lithuanian and Latvian), Slavic (Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian, Polish, Czeck, Slovak, Slovene) , Celtic (Irish, Welsh, Scottish, Gaelic, Breton) , Romance-Italic, that consist of Latin, French, Spanish, Portugese, Catalan, Italian, Rumanian and Germanic, which involves German, English, Yiddish, Dutch, Flemish, Danish, Icelandic, Norwegian and Swedish.

13. Are there any different periods in english language?İf yes,please explian them.

Yes, there are 5 different periods. At first occured a language which is called “old english”,it was from 450 till1066. It was in the period of the Angles, Saxons and Jutes. After that came the period of middle English, which was from 1066 till 1476 and it is also called Norman Conguest. From 1476 until 1776 it was a premodern time. The printing press was invented which changed the life of many humans. The last period is callled “early modern english”, which starts in the year 1776 and occurs currenttly. In this time the American revolution happend and now in the present we have still this modern english. Over these periods the english language underwent a great deal of sound changes.

14. Which sounds changed?

At first there happened a spontaneous change among the long vowels, which means that a sound always change the same way independent. Of any specific context. The long vowels changed from old to modern english,which is known as the “great vowel shift”. For example “hus” became “house”. There changed also the short vowels and old english unstressed final syllbles developed in a different way. Another imoprtant change is that there was a combinatory change among the vowels for example just old english has long vowles before clusters. And middle english for instance had short vowels before an“r”. Moreover the vowel merges from old english to modern english and some consonants changed.

15. What is the definition of a lexicon?

Lexicon is very familiar for us because it is also a synonym for dictionary or encyclopedic dictionary. But in linguistics, the lexicon of a language is its vocabulary, including its words and expressions.So the definition is that it is a language's inventory of lexemes. Therefore you can also say that usually a lexicon is a container for words belonging to the same language.

16. What does a linguist do when he studies a lexicon?

When a linguist studies the lexicon, he studies such things as what words are, how the vocabulary in a language is structured, how people use and store words, how they learn words, the history and evolution of words (e.g. etymology), types of relationships between words as well as how words were created.

17. Does the term “word” belongs to lexicology?
No, the term “word” is not a discipline or a branch of lexicology, because you can`t define exactly this very theoretical item.
18. What is a lexeme?
A lexeme is an abstract unit of morphological analysis in linguistics, that roughly corresponds to a set of words which are different forms of the same word. For example “run”, “runs”, “ran” and “running” are forms of the same lexeme. A lexeme belongs to a particular syntactic category, has a particular meaning , and in inflecting languages, has a corresponding inflectional paradigm that means a lexeme in many languages will have many different forms. The use of the forms of a lexeme is governed by rules of grammar.

19. What is a lemma?
A related concept to a lexeme is a lemma, which is a particular form of a lexeme that is chosen by convention to represent a canonical form of a lexeme. Lemmas are used in dictionaries as headwords, and other forms of a lexeme are often listed later in the entry if they are unusual in some way.

20. What is a sememe?
The word sememe is drived from the ancient greek word “semaino” which means to “signify”. In the semantical language it is a unit of meaning and correlative to a morpheme.A sememe is a proposed unit of transmitted or intended meaning; it is atomic or indivisible. A sememe can be the meaning expressed by a morpheme, such as the English pluralizing morpheme -s, which carries the sememic feature [+ plural].

21. How many types of sememes do exist?
There exist five types of sememes, two denotational and three conotational, while conotational are occurring only in phrase units. That means that they do not reflect the denotat (The physical meaning of a sign).

22. What is a morpheme? Please give some instances.

Lexemes are often composed of smaller units with individual meaning called morphemes.A morpheme is the smallest meaningful linguistic unit. For instance the word "unbreakable" has three morphemes: "un-", a bound morpheme; "-break-", a free morpheme; and "-able", a bound morpheme. "un-" is also a prefix, "-able" is a suffix andboth are affixes.

23. What are the types of morphology?

There are two types of morphology: Roots and affixes. And the root morphemes are also divided into two groups. At first we have bound root morphemes. Those morphemes come from Languages like Latin, Greek and French. Roots are for example: seg-, gen-, card-, happ-, ruth-, feck- or tele-. As you can see they occur mostly at the beginning of one word, for instance in the word telefon or happiness, each of them have a bound root. Therefore they can`t stand alone and are bound to the rest of the word.
The second group of roots are called free morphemes. They can stand alone, for example phone, graph or contra.
The other type, affixes, are added to the stem and their meaning is usually not very specific. It just exist a small number of them. You can divide affixes in prefixes, which are occurs at the beginning, before the stem, of a word and suffixes. A prefix is for example “trans” in transport, “hyper” in hyperlink or “re” in reject. Suffixes occurs at the end of a word, for instance “-ship” in relationship or “hood” in motherhood.

24. How can you describe an allomorph and explain its type?

An allomorph is a linguistic term for a variant form of a morpheme. The concept occurs when a unit of meaning can vary in sound (phonologically) without changing meaning. There are three types of an allomorph: the zero allomorph, the irregular allomorph and the regular allomporph. The zero allomorph is unchanging, this morpheme has the same shape, in all the words in which it appears. It can thus be said to exhibit zero allomorphy. For instance, the root phil 'love' remains constant in the words in which it appears, e.g. Philadelphia, philanthropy, philology or, philosoph .The second type is called the irregular allomorphy. And these are morphemes whose variants are not derived from one another through regular living and productive rules; the result is unpredictable allomorphs.
Regular allomorphs are morphemes whose variation can be described in terms of regular rules, this group will therefore consist of predictable allomorphs.

25. What are the functions of prefixes and suffixes?

They modify the words grammatically and semantically.

26. What are the types of prefixes?

1.Counting 2.involvement 3.judgement 4.temporal 5.negative 6. measurement 7.locative

27. What are the suffixes used for ?Can you give some examples?

The suffixes have a lot of functions. Firstly, they are used to form abstract nouns, for example “innateness friendship”. Then they also form agentive nouns, e.g. “artist politician”. Moreover, they are used to form verbs from roots and stems, e.g. “realize terminate”

28. What is assimilation in a linguistic aspect?

Assimilation is a linguistic process by which a sound becomes similar to an adjacent sound.

29. What are the types of assimilation?

Assimilation has six types. At first you can scope, so that you change the sound from for instance “syn” to “sil”. But you can also change the direction from right to the left or from the left to the right. Another type is progressive, for example lacked to lagged. Through voicing can also become a sound similar to another one. The fifth type is called total, for example you add “ad” plus “cure” plus “ate” gives the word accurate. The last type is “backness”. An example could be “pel-propel-propulsion”.

30. Which part of lexicology includes sound softenings and weakenings?And can it only be seen in english?

The field lenition includes either softenings and weakenings and it can be seen in most of the languages for example you can see it in german, spanish, latin…etc.

31. Can you classify semantic changes and give examples?

One example for a semantic change is a metaphor. This change is based on the similarity between concepts, for example “mouse”. On is the animal, and the other meaning stands for the computer instrument which helps to use the computer. Another example is Metonymy. This semantical change is based on the contiguity between concepts for instance “horn”. An animal has a horn, but there also exist a music instrument. A synecdoche is the same as above, but there are more semantic changes. One of them is a specilaization in meaning, for example downward shift in a company is corn, but corn also means in the United Kingdom wheat. Moreover, you can generalize meaning, e.g. an upward shift in a taxonomy is a hoover and a hoover vacuum cleaner is any type of vacuum cleaner. Aonther example is the cohyponymic transfer, a horizontal shift in a taxonomy, e.g. the confusion of mouse and rat in some dialects. Antiphrasis is a change whci his based on a contrastive aspect of the concepts, for example perfect lady in the sense of prostitute.The auto-antonymy: is a change of a word's sense and concept to the complementary opposite, e.g. bad in the slang sense of 'good' and the auto-converse is a lexical expression of a relationship by the two extremes of the respective relationship, e.g. take in the dialectal use as 'give'. An semantic change is also an ellipsis. This change is based on the contiguity of names, e.g. car, the 'automobile', due the to invention of the (motor) car. The last change is called folk-etymology. This is based on the similarity of names for instance country dance which original means in French contredanse 'counter dance'

32. What is the domain of lexical semantics?

Semantics usually involved in lexicological work is called lexical semantics. Lexical semantics is somewhat different from other linguistic types of semantics like phrase semantics, semantics of sentence, and text semantics, as they take the notion of meaning in much broader sense. There are outside linguistics types of semantics like cultural semantics and computational semantics, as the latest is not related to computational lexicology but to mathematical logic. Among semantics of language, lexical semantics is most robust, and to some extend the phrase semantics too, while other types of linguistic semantics are new and not quite examined.

33. What means homophony?

Homophony means disambiguation, therefore a homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but differs in meaning. The words may be spelled the same.A short example of a homophone are the words "know" and "no". Notice that they are pronounced the same, but both have different meanings. A homophone is a specific type of homonym.

34. What is a homonym?

A homonym is one of a group of words that share the same spelling or pronunciation, but have different meanings. The state of being a homonym is called homonymy.An examples of a homonym is the trio of words “to”, “too” and “two”.

35. Are there any linguistic concepts related to homonymy?

Yes, there are several similar linguistic concepts related to homonymy, and some are considered sub-types of homonyms. This variety stems in part from the fact that the term 'homonym' is ambiguous, as there are a number of ways that two meanings can share the 'same name'. Related terms are: homography, heteronymy, polysemy, capitonymy and homophony.

36. What are polysemes?
Polysemes are words with the same spelling and distinct but related meanings. The distinction between polysemy and homonymy is often subtle and subjective, and not all sources consider polysemous words to be homonyms. Words such as "mouth", meaning either the orifice on one's face, or the opening of a cave or river, are polysemous and may or may not be considered homonyms.

37. What are capitonyms?
Capitonyms are homonyms that share the same spelling but have different meanings when capitalized for exampüle “polish” (to make shiny) and “Polish” (when somebody is from Poland).

38. What are heteronyms?

Heteronyms are homonyms that share the same spelling but have different pronunciations. For example “desert” (to abandon) and “desert” ( the arid region).

39. What are homographs?
Homographs are homonyms that share the same spelling. Homographs may be pronounced the same, in which case they are also homophones – for example, “bark” (the sound of a dog) and “bark” (the skin of a tree). Alternatively they may be pronounced differently, in which case they are also heteronyms, for example “row” (the argument) and “row” (propel with oars).


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Anonymous said...

NEUROLINGUISTICS

1)Do you know anything about human brain and how does it work?

The development of the human brain is rapid following birth, reaching about
95 percent of its size by age five to six. The large growth of a baby`s
brain results from an over-abundance of neurons and synapses. These
begin to decline around age three; some of the neurons and synapses are
pruned. The remaining neurons and synapses are enhanced by this process. it works as a main mechanism of the human body . it controls every muscle . it works as a control panel .



2)Do you have any idea about neurolinguistics ?

Neurolinguistics is the science concerned with the human brain mechanisms underlying the comprehension, production and abstract knowledge of language, be it spoken, signed or written.



3)What Is Neurolinguistics About?
Where in your brain is a word that you've learned? If you know two languages, are they stored in two different parts of your brain? Is the left side of your brain really the language side? If you lose the ability to talk because of a stroke, can you learn to talk again?
Do people who read languages written from left to right (like English) think differently from people who read languages written from right to left (like Hebrew and Arabic)? What about if you read a language that is written using some other kind of symbols, like Chinese or Japanese? If you're dyslexic, is your brain different from the brain of someone who has no trouble reading?
All of these questions and more are what neurolinguistics is about. Techniques like Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) are used to study language in the brain, and they are constantly being improved. We can see finer and finer details of the brain's constantly changing blood flow--where the blood flows fastest, the brain is most active. We can see more and more accurate traces of our electrical brain waves and understand more about how they reflect our responses to statements that are true or false, ungrammatical or nonsense, and how the brain's electrical activity varies depending on whether we are listening to nouns or verbs, words about colors, or words about numbers.


4)Where Is Language in the Brain?
Brain activity is like the activity of a huge city. A city is organized so that people who live in it can get what they need to live on, but you can't say that a complex activity, like manufacturing a product, is 'in' one place. Raw materials have to arrive, subcontractors are needed, the product must be shipped out in various directions. It's the same with our brains. We can't say that all of language is 'in' a particular part of the brain; it's not even true that a particular word is 'in' just one spot in a person's brain. But we can say that listening, understanding, talking, and reading each involve activities in certain parts of the brain much more than other parts.
Most of these parts are in the left side of your brain, the left hemisphere, regardless of what language you read and how it is written. We know this because aphasia (language loss due to brain damage) is almost always due to left hemisphere injury in people who speak and read Hebrew, English, Chinese, or Japanese, and also in people who are illiterate. But areas in the right side are essential for communicating effectively and for understanding the point of what people are saying. If you are bilingual, your right hemisphere may be somewhat more involved in your second language than it is in your first language.


5)Are All Human Brains Organized in the Same Way?

The organization of your brain is similar to other peoples' because we almost all move, hear, see, and so on in essentially the same way. But our individual experiences and training also affect the organization of our brains--for example, deaf people understand sign language using just about the same parts of their brains that hearing people do for spoken language.




6)What is aphasia like?

Aphasia (or aphemia) is a loss of the ability to produce and/or comprehend language, due to injury to brain areas specialized for these functions. It is not a result of deficits in sensory, intellect, or psychiatric functioning. It is also not muscle weakness or a cognitive disorder.
Depending on the area and extent of the damage, someone suffering from aphasia may be able to speak but not write, or vice versa, or display any of a wide variety of other deficiencies in language comprehension and production, such as being able to sing but not speak. Aphasia may co-occur with speech disorders such as dysarthria or apraxia of speech, which also result from brain damage.




7)What about dyslexia?
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that manifests primarily as a difficulty with written language, particularly with reading and spelling. It is separate and distinct from reading difficulties resulting from other causes, such as deficiencies in intelligence, a non-neurological deficiency with vision or hearing, or from poor or inadequate reading instruction. Evidence suggests that dyslexia results from differences in how the brain processes written and/or verbal language. Although dyslexia is the result of a neurological difference, it is not an intellectual disability. Dyslexia occurs at all levels of intelligence, average, above average, and
highly gifted.




8)What is Neurobiology?

Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. It is a subdiscipline of both biology and neuroscience. Neurobiology differs from neuroscience, a much broader field that is concerned with any scientific study of the nervous system. Neurobiology should also not be confused with other subdisciplines of neuroscience such as computational neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, behavioral neuroscience, biological psychiatry, neurology, and neuropsychology despite the overlap with these subdisciplines. Scientists that study neurobiology are called neurobiologists.



9)What is Cognitive science?
Cognitive science is most simply defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence . It is an interdisciplinary study drawing from relevant fields including psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, anthropology, computer science, biology, and physics. The term cognitive science was coined by Christopher Longuet-Higgins in his 1973 commentary on the Lighthill report, which concerned the then-current state of Artificial Intelligence research. In the same decade, the journal Cognitive Science and the Cognitive Science Society began.



10)What is A sign language?
Sign language is a language which uses manual communication, body language and lip patterns instead of sound to convey meaning—simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to express fluidly a speaker's thoughts. Sign languages commonly develop in deaf communities, which can include interpreters and friends and families of deaf people as well as people who are deaf or hard of hearing themselves.
As is the case in spoken language, sign language differs from one region to another. However, when people using different signed languages meet, communication is significantly easier than when people of different spoken languages meet. Sign language, in this respect, gives access to an international deaf community. Sign language is however not universal, and many different sign languages exist that are mostly mutually unintelligible.
Wherever communities of deaf people exist, sign languages develop, in fact their complex spatial grammars are markedly different than spoken language. In many cases, various signed "modes" of spoken languages have been developed, such as Signed English and Warlpiri Sign Language. Hundreds of sign languages are in use around the world and are at the core of local Deaf cultures. Some sign languages have obtained some form of legal recognition, while others have no status at all.
Exemplary for the mature status of sign languages is the growing body of sign language poetry, and other stage performances. The poetic mechanisms available to signing poets are not all available to a speaking poet. This offers new, exciting ways for poems to reach and move the audience.



11)What is spoken language?
Spoken language is a human natural language in which the words are uttered through the mouth. Most human languages are spoken languages.
Speech communication stands in contrast to sign language and written language. From the point of view of linguistic evolution, spoken is prior to written language. The writing system of any language is developed or "invented" by its users to record speech when the need arises. Even today, there are many world languages that can be spoken but have no standard written form. Hearing persons acquire their first language by way of spoken language. Writing is learned later. In linguistics, spoken language reveals many true features of human speech while written language is only a "revised" record of speech. Thus linguists' data for investigation and analysis are mostly drawn from everyday speech, which they regard as authentic. Even from the point of view of syntax, spoken language usually has its own set of grammar patterns which sometimes may be quite different from that in written language.
Sign languages have the same natural origin as spoken languages, and the same grammatical complexities, but use the hands, arms, and face rather than parts of the mouth as their place of articulation.


12) What is Functional magnetic resonance imaging?
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the use of MRI to measure the haemodynamic response related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. It is one of the most recently developed forms of neuroimaging.


13)What is event-related potential?
An event-related potential (ERP) is any stereotyped electrophysiological response to an internal or external stimulus. More simply, it is any measured brain response that is directly the result of a thought or perception.


14)What is Broca's area and where is it?
It is a section of the human brain that is involved in language processing, speech production, and comprehension. Broca's area is named after the 19th-century physician Paul Broca. The concept of Broca's Area was originally produced with the intent to explain how speech production was inhibited in the learning of communication by the deaf; however, it is currently used to describe many anatomical aspects of psychological processing mechanisms.
Broca's area is located in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex. Broca's and Wernicke's areas are found unilaterally in the brain.
Broca's area comprises Brodmann area 44 and (according to some authorities) Brodmann area 45. Broca's Area is connected to Wernicke's area by a neural pathway called the arcuate fasciculus. The corresponding area in macaque monkeys is responsible for high-level control over orofacial actions.
[edit] Parts
Broca's area has two main parts, which express different roles during language comprehension and production:
Pars triangularis (anterior), which is thought to support the interpretation of various 'modes' of stimuli (plurimodal association) and the programming of verbal conducts
Pars opercularis (posterior), which is thought to support the management of only one kind of stimulus (unimodal association) and the coordination of the speech organs for the actual production of language, given its favorable position close to motor-related areas



15) What is Wernicke's area and where is it?
It is a part of the human brain that forms part of the cortex, on the posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus, encircling the auditory cortex, on the Sylvian fissure (part of the brain where the temporal lobe and parietal lobe meet). It can also be described as the posterior part of Brodmann area 22, and, for most people, it is located in the left hemisphere, as the left hemisphere is specialized for language skills. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in a stroke can affect the proper functioning of this area.
Wernicke's area is named after Karl Wernicke, a German neurologist and psychiatrist who, in 1874, discovered that damage to this area could cause a type of aphasia that is now called Wernicke's aphasia or receptive aphasia.
This condition results in an impairment of language comprehension and in speech that has a natural-sounding rhythm and a relatively normal syntax, but otherwise has no recognisable meaning (a condition sometimes called fluent or jargon aphasia).
Wernicke's work initiated the study of this brain area and its role in language. It is particularly known to be involved in the understanding and comprehension of spoken language.
It is connected to Broca's area via the arcuate fasciculus, a neural pathway. It also has connections to the primary auditory cortex, evidence for its role in the comprehension of the spoken words.
QUESTIONS :
1)What is.....
2)Do you have ....
3)What about.....
4)Where is....
5)Are....
6)How does ....
7)What is ....like....????

3231050033 KURSAT ARSLAN
3231050099 OZLEM KOCAK

Anonymous said...

What is markedness?
It is a study of how certain forms of grammatical organization are more neutral than others.

What is language?
I think language is a way of expression and development.I said sender has the function emotive,so self-expression.

which area are you interested in?
I am interested in semiology,structuralism and art.

What is your area?
I am a semiotist,structural analyst.

What is your theory?
Without a contradiction between language and reality there is no mobility of concepts,no mobility of signs and the relationship between concepts and signs become automatized.Activity comes to a halt and the awareness of reality dies out

For example?
Structural linguistics would emphasize that a sentence have a noun and verb in agreement while traditionally a sentenece needs to be a complete thought.

structural liguistics?
It analyzes how words form and how those words are used together to form longer structure.So,we can say it is the link between thought and sound or form and meaning.

What is structural linguistic?
It deals with languages at particular points in time(synchronic)rather than throughtout their historical development.(diachronic)

what can you say about semiology generally?
Semiology refuses the obvious meaning of a work: it does not take the message at face value. We are concerned with MESSAGES and the preferred ways to READ them.

the second?
articulation involves determining the rules of combination.In summary: The analyst takes the object, decomposes it and then re-composes it. The analyst makes something appear which was invisible or unintelligible.

What is semiological analysis?
semiological analysis involves two operations: dissection and articulation. The first operation (dissection) includes looking for fragments (elements) which when associated one with another suggest a certain meaning.

What is metonymy?
For example, the sign of a mother pouring out a particular breakfast cereal for her children is a metonym of all her maternal activities of cooking, cleaning, and so on, but a metaphor for the love and the security she provides.

metaphor?
"visual metaphors" are constructed, e.g., a portrait of a man is constructed in such a way as to convince us that the two dimensional visual representation is equivalent to its three-dimensional reality

What is metaphor?
Metaphor involves a transposition or displacement from signified to signifier, together with the recognition that such a transposition implies an equivalence between these two elements of the sign.

What do you mean by saying difference?
The term "difference" describes the relationship between the elements at work in any given message.

What is syntagm?
The syntagm is the statement into which the chosen signs are combined. A road sign is a syntagm, a combination of the chosen shape with the chosen symbol

What is paradigms?
A paradigm is a vertical set of units (each unit being a sign or word), from which the required one is selected,for example; the set of shapes for road signs: square, round and triangular.

What is connotation?
The interaction that occurs when the sign and the feelings of the viewer meet.If denotation is what is photographed, connotation is how it is photographed.

What is denotation?
It is the obvious meaning of the sign.For example, I can use color film, pick a day of pale sunshine, and use a soft focus lens to make the street appear warm and happy, a safe community for children.It is the denotation. Edit
Jan 4 What are signifier and signified?
The signifier--which has a physical existence--carries the meaning. The signified is a mental concept that is the meaning.It is common to all members of the same culture who share the same language.

What is sign?
The sign is the associative total of the signifier and signified: we speak of it as a signifying construct.

what do you mean saying "axes of language"?
E.g.we might select items from various categories in the associative dimension, such as kitten, cat, moggy, tom, puss;sat, rested, crouched; mat, and so on, and link them in the combinative plane to formulate statements like:the cat sat on the mat.

What are the basic elements of semiology?
1-axes of language,2-signs,3-motivation,4-denotation and connotation,5-paradigms and syntagms,6-difference 7-metaphor and metonymy 8-3 orders of significations 9-semiological analysis 10-concluding remarks

What is semiology?
As an example,we use a variety of gestures (signs) in everyday life to convey messages to people around us, e.g., rubbing our thumb and forefinger together to signify money.

What is formalism?
In short,formalism refers to a set of beliefs in philosophy, art, literature, or music.Formalism attempted to find the object of a science of literature

What do you mean?
listeners hear what they expect hear. If they hear something different, something that challenges their basic beliefs, the confirmation bias kicks in, and they find ways to interpret the new information as unreliable or unfounded or just palin wrong.

What's wrong with the conventional view?
conventional view of communications is that it grossly understates the role of the listener.

and....?
and the addressee; and finally, a contact, a physical channel and psychological connection betweeen the addresser and the addressee, enabling both of them to enter and stay in communication.

What is your communication theory?
the addresser sends a message to the addressee. To be operative, the message requires a context referred to, seizable by the addressee, and either verbal or capable of being verbalized; a code fully, or at least partially, common to the addresser and

such as?
sleeps,naps,nods,dozes.....

Would you explain what you mean?
If 'child' is the topic of the message, the speaker selects one among the extant, more or less similar, nouns like child, kid, youngster, tot, all of them equivalent in a certain respect,he may select one of the semantically cognate verbs

What is the empirical linguistic criterion of the poetic function?
To answer this question we must recall the two basic modes of arrangement used in verbal behavior, selection and combination.

Thereotical typology?
It explains the other sub-disciplines and distributions.

explain quantitative typology
Quantitative typology deals with the distribution and co-occurrence of structural patterns in the languages of the world. Two major types of non-chance distribution are preferences (semantic maps,hierarchies)and correlations

Could you explain these sub-disciplines?
Qualitative typology develops cross-linguistically viable notions or types which provide a framework for the description and comparison of individual languages.For example; S V O positioning....

What are these sub disciplines?
1-qualitative typology,2-Quantitative typology and 3-theoretical typology

what is linguistic typology?
Well,it is describing and explaining the structural diversity of the world's languages.It includes three sub-disciplines.

can you continue? variations)
5) the metalingual function is used to establish mutual agreement on the code (for example, a definition); (6) the poetic function (e.g., 'Smurf'), puts 'the focus on the message for its own sake'
(3) the conative function is oriented toward the addressee (imperatives and apostrophes); (4) the phatic function serves to establish, prolong or discontinue communication [or confirm whether the contact is still there] (as in 'Hello?');

Can you explain them?
"(1) the referential function is oriented toward the context (the dominant function in a message like 'Water boils at 100 degrees'); (2) the emotive function is oriented toward the addresser (as in the interjections 'Bah!' and 'Oh!'

and code?
code is meta lingual

What are the communication functions?
there are six communication process or item.These are 1.context, 2.message,3.sender.4.receiver,5.channel,6.code.And each of them has a function.I think,context is referential,message is poetic,sender is emotive,receiver is conative,channel is phatic

what is the relationship between linguistics and poetics?
In short, many poetic features belong not only to the science of language but to the whole theory of signs, that is, to general semiotics.
Poetics deals with problems of verbal structure, just as the analysis of painting is concerned with pictorial structure. Since linguistics is the global science of verbal structure, poetics may be regarded as an integral part of linguistics.

Sabriye kaya 3231040081
Nuriye yakupi 3231040115

Roman Osipovich Jakobson

Anonymous said...

Merve Birkardesler 3231050024
Burak Gür 3231050040
HENRY SWEET

1When were you born?
I was born in 1845
2)how do you define 'language'?
Language is the expression of ideas by means of speech-sounds combined into words. Words are combined into sentences, this combination answering to that of ideas into thoughts.
3)which native laguages did you specialized in?
I specialized in the Germanic languages, particularly Anglo-Saxon (Old English), Old Icelandicandic, West Saxon.
4)What kind of issues did you publish?
I published on larger issues of phonetics and grammar in language.My works include Old and Middle English texts, primers, and dictionaries, and a historical English grammar
5)How could you define “phonetics”?
It can be defined as the study of sounds.It is about production and perception of the sounds speech. for all languages.
6)What is the difference between phonetics and phonology?
I think there is a sharp distinction between them.Phonology studies how units of sound fit into a particular language.However;Phonetics means the study of all sounds possible within language
7)Could you give some information about IPA?
It is The alphabet of the International Phonetics Association.(1886).The aim of the IPA is to promote the scientific study of phonetics and the various practical applications of that science.
8)Could you explain “visible speech”?
It is a phonetic alphabet represents "the way lips, tongue and voice produce sound". I designed an improved version of it.
9)What are your writings in phonetics?
History of English Sounds (1874) was a landmark in my study.My other writings are A Handbook of Phonetics (1877), A New English Grammar (2 parts, 1892–95), The History of Language (1900), The Sounds of English (1908).
10)What could you say about foreign language education?
Items that wanted to teach should be selected carefully,not randomly.It should be limited.I propose the materials from simple to complex (listening-speaking-reading-writing)
11)could you give information about Early English Text Society?
It is an organization that reprints old and middle english Works.I edited several books for this society.
12)What do you think about traditional school grammar?
İ think it is unscientific because they are all based on descriptions of written texts. I think language must be regarded as an organism.
13)could you explain the importance of spoken language?
We must regard language as groups of sounds without written symbols.According to the intonation of the words meaning can be change. Language is not for literacy only,but communication. Phonetic must be independent in language.
14)What is the mission of grammar in language?
.The business of the grammar is to provide the connection between the form and meaning and combine them with the general rules.Each speech has a special form such as break,broke,broken.So we could not think meaning apart from the form of the speech
15)how can the classification of a word in a speech be determined?
The form of the sentences define the classification.According to the form we chose the approprite structure.For instance we can say silk thread or silken if they are noun or adjective.however we never say very silken.there is no connection with the meaning.It’s all about the form.
16)what are the meanings of indeclinable and declinable words?
We can divide declinable words into three parts such as nouns,adjectives and verbs.However indeclinable words cover adverbs,propositions and conjunctions.
17)which criterions do you use when you search for meaning?
There are five ways of indicating the relations between words in word-group and sentences a) word order or position b)stres c)intonation d)the use of form verbs and e) inflection
18)What could you say about formulation of the morpheme?
For instance,cats can be divided into cat-s,However “s” has no meaning apart from plurality.ıt could not be used as an independent element in the sentence.Morpheme is the smallest meaningful part of the word.
19)how do you explain the importance of intonation and stres in the sentences.
We could not say they have some influence in written sentence.However they can chance meaning dramatically in spoken language.
20)do you have a web site that we can find your works and projects?
Yes.you can find whatever you search about linguistic at http://www.henrysweet.org/
21) Can you give some information about Henry Sweet society?
It was founded in 1984 and aims to promote the history and study of linguistic.

Anonymous said...

3231050087 Ebru Açak
32310067 Haktan Mollamehmetoğlu

Questions and answers for our cyber linguist:

1) Who is Robert Phillipson?

Robert Phillipson (born March 16, 1942 in England) is Research Professor at Copenhagen Business School's Department of English. He is perhaps best known for writing Linguistic Imperialism and English-Only Europe?: Challenging Language Policy (so far only translated in Esperanto by István Ertl: Ĉu nur-angla Eŭropo? Defio al lingva politiko).
He got his PhD from the University of Amsterdam and his interests include language pedagogy, language policy, and linguistic human rights.
Before 2000 he was a professor at the Department of Language and Culture at Roskilde University in Denmark, and earlier in his career he held positions related to English language teaching in Yugoslavia, Algeria, and Spain. He is a Professor at Copenhagen Business School. 
His current research interests include: the role of English worldwide, why it has expanded, and whose interests it serves in different parts of the world as well as language planning, language rights, linguistic human rights, and language policy.
He has had attachments to universities in Australia, Hungary and India, and in 2005 was a Visiting Fellow at CRASSH, the Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, of the University of Cambridge.

2) What are Robert Phillipson's books?

His publications include English-only Europe? Challenging language policy (2003), Rights to language: equity, power and education (2000), Language, a right and a resource. Approaching linguistic human rights (1999), Linguistic human rights: overcoming linguistic discrimination (1994), Minoriteter og uddannelse. Københavnerstudier i tosprogethed 18. Copenhagen (1993), Linguistic imperialism (1992), Foreign/second language pedagogy research, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. (1991), English language teaching and imperialism (1990), Linguicism rules in education (1986), Learner language and language learning (1984), Danish learning of English obstruents (1982), Spare Time (1973).

3) What is language policy?

Language policy is acquiring increasing importance in an age of intensive political and cultural change due to globalisation and regional integration. Most education systems in Europe aim at trilingual competence by the end of schooling, as advocated by the Council of Europe, and the European Union (EU). The advance of English in a range of key domains, commerce, finance, research and higher education, the media, and popular culture means that contemporary English no longer fits into the traditional mould of a 'foreign' language.

4) What do you think about power and education?

Good question! Power and education focus on a number of the realities that both generate conflicts and are generate conflicts and are generated by them.
Relations of dominance,then,and of necessity struggles against them ,are not theoretical abstractions,somewhere out there in an ethereal sphere unconnected to daily life. Rather, they are based on and built out of an entire network of daily social and cultural relations and practices.

5) Have you got any idea about linguistic human rights?

Linguistic rights should be considered basic human rights. Linguistic majorities, speakers of a dominant language, usually enjoy all those lingustic human rights which can be seen as fundamental, regardless of how they are defined. Most linguistic minorities do not enjoy these rights. It's only a few hundred of the world's 6-7.000 languages that have any kind of official status ,and it is only speakers of official languages who enjoy all linguistic human rights.

6) Have you ever heard about linguistic diversity?

As language diverstiy increases across the globe, an increasing number of countries are engaging in policy debates about the appropriate language(s) of instruction for both language minority and majority students. For example in Canada, many Enflish speaking (majority group) parents have demanded the right to have their children educated partially through French in French immersion programs. However,when minorities demand of education through their own language, the policiy debate frequenty becomes extremely volatile. Debates about minority language instruction encompass issues of legal and moral rights, issues of cognitive and academic outcomes from different types of programs, and ultimately issues of the envisaged relations of culture and power in the society as a whole.

7) Can you define language pedagogy?

It refers to pedagogy of language learning in higher education focusing on learner motivation, classroom environments, relationships for learning, and the future of language education.Language pedagogy reveals numerous links to language education on the secondary level, appealing to a wide audience.

8) What can you say about the languages in EU Institutions?

There are many problems that result in inefficiency, explaining how English performs many of the functions that were carried out in French earlier, and considering whether
alternatives to the present hierarchy of languages could be envisaged. The world's
most complex system of multilingual translation and interpretation has been built
up over the past half-century, with these services at the cutting edge of
multilingual language policy and developments in language technology. However,
there are complaints about inadequacies in the present system, which is under
pressure to make economies. It is important to distinguish between the needs of
those working for the EU, parliamentarians, the general public, and legislation.
The system has never been subjected to an overall review.

9) Can you explain knowldege economy?

The knowledge economy is a vague term that refers either to an economy of knowledge focused on the production and management of knowledge, or a knowledge-based economy. In the second meaning, more frequently used, it refers to the use of knowledge to produce economic benefits. Various observers describe today's global economy as one in transition to a "knowledge economy", as an extension of "information society". The transition requires that the rules and practices that determined success in the industrial economy need rewriting in an interconnected, globalised economy where knowledge resources such as know-how, expertise, and intellectual property are more critical than other economic resources such as land, natural resources, or even manpower. According to analysts of the "knowledge economy," these rules need to be rewritten at the levels of firms and industries in terms of knowledge management and at the level of public policy as knowledge policy or knowledge-related policy.

10) How can you define multilingualism?

The term multilingualism can refer to an occurrence regarding an individual speaker who uses two or more languages, a community of speakers where two or more languages are used, or between speakers of different languages. But in multilingual societies, not all speakers need to be multilingual. When all speakers are multilingual, linguists classify the community according to the functional distribution of the languages involved.

11) Can you define the term 'language awareness' ?

The role of explicit knowledge about language in the process of language learning; the role that such explicit knowledge about language plays in language teaching and how such knowledge can best be mediated by teachers; the role of explicit knowledge about language in language use: e.g. sensitivity to bias in language, manipulative aspects of language, literary use of language. It is also a goal of Language Awareness to encourage the establishment of bridges between the language sciences and other disciplines within or outside educational context.

12) What are the goals for foreign language teaching?

Foreign language learning has become an important component of the universities' broadbased
education. By offering to do a third language or a foreign language undergraduates will be able to equip themselves with skills that will give them the competitive edge to participate in a globalized economy where the use of languages other than English is in high demand. Language skills acquired
in the universities will be an added asset for the undergraduates as this will mean more economic opportunities for them in this region and beyond. Having this in mind,lecturers should feel strongly about the need for their teaching staff to work toward common goals of foreign language teaching and learning.

13) What does diffusion of English paradigm mean?

It seems to mean spreading the linguistic homogenization of the world that has been sold together with the subtractive spread of English, at the cost of the development of other languages. It seems to mean the spread of the spread of the prevailing monolingualism of the 'real ' English-speaking Brtis or Amercicans or Australians or the monolingualism of the 'real' monolingualism of the 'real' monolingual French or Germans.

14) What can you tell about Ecology of English paradigm?

It is possible that it means a belief that the hegemony of English is tantamount to wound or even to linguicide other European languages. They address the problem of linguistic hegemony as crucial to the development of 'human and cultural security'.

15) What are your recommendations for action on language policies?

EU language policy must be based on sociolinguistic realities, matters of cost and
principle, practicability and efficiency, and political will. It sketches out worstcase
and best-case scenarios, and pleads for language issues to be taken much
more seriously by member states and the Union at a time of historic change.
Forty-five specific recommendations are made for achieving this, grouped under
four headings: National and supranational policy infrastructure, EU institutions,
Language teaching and learning, and Research. These concrete proposals bring
together much of the evidence of the book into a coherent plan for how language
policy can be taken forward in an informed way. There are major national and
global interests at stake. Leadership on language policy is needed. Active
language policies can avert an American-English only Europe.

16) What is common European frameworks of reference (CEFR) for languages?

The CEFR describes in a comprehensive manner 1) the competences necessary for communication, 2) the related knowledge and skills and 3) the situations and domains of communication. The CEFR is of particular interest to course designers, textbook writers, testers, teachers and teacher trainers - in fact to all who are directly involved in language teaching and testing. It facilitates a clear definition of teaching and learning objectives and methods and provides the necessary tools for assessment of proficiency.

17) What are the language policy challenges in Europe?

Languages play a central role in the way Europe is currently being integrated. How the
European Union and its member states deal with multilingualism has serious implications
for individuals, for states, and for international relations.
The languages of European nations are being changed by globalisation, the EU, and
English. It is arguable that all continental European languages are on a fast track to
second-class status.

18) What are the global trends impacting on language policy and its measures?

Multilingualism is becoming more widespread, partly as a result of more continental Europeans
using English as a foreign language actively. The factors which have contributed
to an increased use of English, and to inertia in formulating language policy, are
analysed in a table under 15 headings, ten of which are structural and five
ideological or attitudinal. Some are supply factors (investment by Anglo-
Americans), some reflect demand (investment in learning English in schools).
Language policy experience in Canada, Australia and South Africa is drawn on, so
as to show that the management of multilingualism benefits when the goals of
language policy are made explicit.This issue has four sub-sections, on
commerce, on science, on culture, and on education, with rich exemplification of
ongoing processes for each of them, and exploration of what is involved when
territory traditionally occupied by national languages (Finnish, German and
Swedish are exemplified) is being taken over by English. Key EU initiatives to
strengthen language learning, particular in general education, are reported on.
These policy measures are at the interface between the elaboration of
recommendations agreed on at the supranational level and national
implementation goals and strategies.

19) What are the language policy challenges in Europe?
Languages play a central role in the way Europe is currently being integrated. How the
European Union and its member states deal with multilingualism has serious implications
for individuals, for states, and for international relations.
The languages of European nations are being changed by globalisation, the EU, and
English. It is arguable that all continental European languages are on a fast track to
second-class status.

20) What are the risks of laissez faire language policies?

The wide-ranging introduction of my book English-only Europe? Challenging language policy (Routledge, 2003) asks whether the increased use of English is serving to unite or divide Europe. It cites examples of discrimination, and steps that several European governments have taken to strengthen their languages. It refers to Eurobarometer data on language proficiency in the mother tongue and foreign languages, reports on ongoing
measures to strengthen language learning, and demonstrates what the challenges
and competing pressures are. It explains and exemplifies the concepts language
policy and language planning, with examples from many parts of the world. It
concludes with examples of when language policy issues are reported in
newspapers. Typically this occurs when there is a political crisis of some sort,
because a government senses that their language is being discriminated against.
Unfortunately journalistic coverage of the principles underlying EU language
policies is often inaccurate.It makes a strong case for more proactive,
explicit language policies.

Anonymous said...

Çağrı Erden 3231050070
muhammed Özcan3231050038
their "kanka" michael alexander kirkwood halliday



what is your contrubition to the linguistics field?
well my main studies are on an internationally influential grammar. i mean the systematic functional grammar or systematic functional linguistic (SFL)

can you explain briefly SFL?
I investigate linguistics as it were a sub-branch of sociology. SFL pays much more attention to pragmatics and discourse semantics, at the expense of an easily computable formalism.

how do you call these functions?
I identify 7 functions that language has for children in their early years.I call them instrumental, regulator interactional, personal functions.


can you shortly explain instrumental function?
In ‘the instrumental model’, ‘language’ is ‘a means of getting things done’.


how do you call these functions?
I identify 7 functions that language has for children in their early years.I call them instrumental, regulator interactional, personal functions.

what is your idea about regulator interactional model?
in ‘the regulatory model’, a means for ‘exercising control over others’ and ‘their behaviour’

what is the personal functions?
In ‘the personal model’, ‘the child’ becomes ‘aware of language as a form of individuality’ and of its ‘role’ in ‘the development of personality’

what is heuristic model?
In ‘the heuristic model’, ‘language’ serves ‘to explore his environment’ and ‘investigate reality’,

what is about imaginative metafunction?
in ‘the imaginative model’, ‘to create his own environment’

Finally representational metafunction?
in ‘the representational model’, ‘language is’ ‘a means of communicating about something, expressing propositions’, and ‘conveying a message’ with ‘specific reference’ to ‘processes, persons, qualities, states, and relations of real world


What is the main notion of SFL?
A central notion is stratification such that language is analysed in terms of 4 strata

What are these stratas?
These are semantic,context,lexico-grammar, and phonology-graphology

What is semantic?
Semantic includes What is usually called pragmatics.Meanings are in SFL grammar divided into 3 broad areas called metafunctions:the ideational,the interpersonal,the textual.

What is the ideational metafunction,than?
This metafunction construes human experıence and is realised on the syntagmatic axis throgh process. participant and circumtance types, while on the paradigmatc axis it is realised through process types.

what is the textual metafunction?
This creates discourse and is relised througgh information packaging and text structuring.The textual metafunction enables language to be operationally relevant and have texture in real contexts of situation

what is the interpersonal metafunction?
It enacts human relationships and realised through Subject and verb roles.The interpersonal meta-function concerns forms of interaction and embodies all use of language to express social and personal relations,personalities, and personal feelings.


what does context concern?
It concerns field, tenor and mode

What is theme?
Theme -- the other aspect of textual meaning alongside information structure-- is concerned with the status of elements as components of a message.

what does the mood represent?
‘Mood represents the organization of participants in speech situations’ and ‘speaker roles’, such as ‘informing’, ‘confirming’, ‘contradicting’ .

what is grammatic metaphore?
This is useful concept in describing certain constructions and language mechanisms. i also propose that it is origin is to be found in ancient Greek.

can you explain the semiotic system ?
Semiotic system embodies all human experience and relations; it is sysyem of meaning.

What about process and range?
Process represents change and staying the same and not changing becomes just the limiting case

And range?
Range have some features of participants and some of circumstances; grammatically, also, they are mixed and may enter directly as nominal groups or indirectly in prepositional phrases.

what is lexicogrammar?
lexicogrammar is an interpretation of linguistic forms:every distinction --every set of options, or “system” -- must make some contribution to the form of the wording.

what are the "new" and "given" for you?
The information unit is a structure made up of two functions the New and the Given

than what is new?
The new is either not previously mentioned or is presented by the speaker as not being recoverable from the preceding discourse and thus as textually and situationally non-derivable

and given?
the Given is what is not “New". Given refers to something already present in the verbal or non-verbal context.

Anonymous said...

The linguist is Givon Talmy

1-What fields are you most concerned with?
They are syntax,typology,functionalism,pragmatics and semantics

2-What is typology?
It is asubfield of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural features

3-Do you think the structure of prefixxes are in relation with subject,object and verb?
Of course,I proved this in some of my studies.For examle, Mchombo (in press), include elements that encode information pertaining to agreement with the subject and the object, tense/aspect, negation, modality etc. The morphology of suffixation and prefixation (or cliticization) is sufficiently well established as to require no further comment. The following provides a typical example of such morphological organization:
1. Mkango u-da-omb-an-its-a alenje ndi asodzi
3-lion 3SM-pst-hit-recip-caus-fv 2-hunter and 2-fishermen
The lion made the hunters and the fishermen hit each other.
4-What is pronominal?
It is a pharase that functions as pronoun.For example,”That is not the one I wanted”.The words ‘the one’ is a kind of pronominal

5-What did you do on pronominals?
I specified crosslinguistics properties of personal pronounbefore I mention them I want to clarrify that languages with bound pronominals have the typological property that their free pronouns appear to be specialized for focus uses
Crosslinguistics properties of personal pronouns:
PRO variable referentiality,lack of descriptive content
TOP topic anahoritcity
AGR classification by person,number,gender

6-What are overt and reduced pronominals?



7-What is foregrounding and backgrounding in linguistics?
The term 'foregrounding' may be used in a purely linguistic sense. It then refers to new information, in contrast to elements in the sentence which form the background against which the new elements are to be understood by the listener/reader. From this point of view the term bears resemblance to other (pairs of) concepts in linguistics, such as theme/rheme, given/new, frame/insert, and subject/predicate.
8-What is the function of the notion of windowing and gapping to the foregrounding-backgrounding frame?
. These notions prove to be useful in analysing the cogitation of a motion event which consists of six cognitive components: FIGURE, GROUND, PATH, MOTION, MANNER and CAUSE

9-What many cognitive components are there in motion events?
There are 6 elements.These are PATH,FİGURE,GROUND,MOTİONMANNER and CAUSE.

10-What do verb-framed and satellite-framed verb mean?
, Languages which express the path of an event in verbs are called the verb-framed languages (eg. French and Spanish) while those that express the path via prepositions are satellite-framed language.

11-What is PATH?
PATH is the route resulting from the motion event, examples are enter, exit, descend, ascend and is divided further into three categories: open, closed, and fictive (p. 224). The PATH in a motion event can either be expressed in verbs or through prepositions

What is CAUSE?
the cause of motion indicates that the application of a force induces the motion (e.g.,kicked the ball, pushed the chair)


12-What is Figure?
figure (also called shape, examples are lexemes meaning“long.object.moves”,“solid.round.object.moves”). Lexicalization of figure or shape seems to be restricted to some North American languages
.
13-What is MANNER?
manner is the kind of motion, examples are run, limp, stumble, rush

14-What is the relation between path verbs and manner& figure verbs?

My lexicalization pattern theory shows that the absence of path verbs en-
tails a high frequency of manner or figure verbs

15-What is your principle of quantity iconicity?
(a) "A larger chunk of information will be given a larger chunk of code".
(b) "Less predictable information will be given more coding material".
(c) "More important information will be given more coding material
(b)
16-What is your normative view to children’s errors While they are acquiring language?
There are many distinct ways in which children's' speech transiently differs from adult speech - many distinct `error types' which are universally eventually corrected.
17-How can you prove that the set of meanings which are grammatically encoded in any language is limited?
[Grammatical forms] represent only certain categories , such as space, time (hence, also form, location and motion), perspective-point, distribution of attention point, force, causation, knowledge state, reality status, and the current speech event, to name some main ones. And, importantly, they are not free to express just anything within these conceptual domains, but are limited to quite particular aspects and combinations of aspects, ones that can be thought to constitute the “structure” of these domains.
18-How do languages differ in What they encode?
In my observation, while verbs of motion may encode motion, direction, form of the moving object, and manner of motion, in any one language the verbs only encode only two of these elements. In English, verbs encode motion and manner. Some American languages encode motion and form of the moving object. Spanish encodes motion and direction; manner must be encoded separately by an adverb.
19-What does the length of clause:Nouns&Verbs means?
The modal clause in English (and Russian is similar) consists of two noun phrases separated by one verb phrase (Givon 1993, 209). As each noun or verb phrase consists of one noun or verb plus its associated words (prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, etc.), the ratio of nouns to verbs measures whether the speaker is elongating clauses by adding more noun phrases to each verb phrase. Of course, noun phrases can be replaced by pronouns or by other parts of speech. Because replacement of noun phrases is especially common when participants in dialogue share assumptions about the referents of their discussion, the modal ratio of nouns to verbs may exceed the mean ratio, especially in communication among persons who feel close.
20-What is your idea on verb/noun distinction?
Each of them label cognitively distinct types of concept. For example,I motivate the existence of Nouns, Verbs, and, where they occur, Adjectives, in terms of a scale of "time-stability":
Experiences--or phenomenological clusters--which stay relatively stable over time, i.e. those which over repeated scans appear to be roughly "the same", tend to be lexicalized in human language as nouns. The most prototypical nouns are those denoting concrete, physical, compact entities made out of durable, solid matter, such as 'rock', 'tree', 'dog', 'person' etc. ...
At the other extreme of the lexical-phenomenological scale, one finds experiential clusters denoting rapid changes in the state of the universe. These are prototypically events or actions, and languages tend to lexicalize them as verbs

21-What is the topicalisation function?
The object foregrounding function of the passive, which has also been referred
to as the topicalisation function , refers to the assignment of the subject/topic or merely topic function to a non agent

22-What is clausal topic assignment?

In the case of passive, this process(topicalisation function) involves the active object becoming passive subject, which
I term clausal topic assignment: ‘the subject/agent of the active clause
ceases to be the topic, and a non-actor argument of the active then assumes, by
whatever means, the clausal-topic function’

23-How can you explain the importance of the animacy and semantic hierarchies in linguistics?
The animacy and semantic hierarchies respond to the human tendency to talk primarily about human agents.Human agents are most commonly chosen as topics, and, given that ‘the subject slot is the topic slot’, clauses are most likely to have human agents as subjects, and hence to be in the active voice

24-what is your finding on verb-framed and satellite-framed languages?
Satellite-framed (S)-languages tend to express the path of motion in a verb particle and the manner of motion in the verb (jump, run, etc.), whereas verb-framed (V)-languages express the path in the verb (enter, exit) and the manner in an adverbial

25-What is your framework for the crosslinguistic comparison of spatial expression and their acquisition?

The conceptualization of a motion event (static spatial settings as well) can be analyzed as integrating a series of different conceptual components.There are 3 entities in the conceptual structure of locating expression

26-What are these entities?
The first of them is the object or being which is going to be located in space and typically expressed in the subject NP of a spatial expression.Ask me ‘Other entities?’ in the next question

27-Other entities?

The second conceptual part of a motion event is the activating process. It can have two distinct parameter settings, either transition or fixity. The activating process is generally mapped onto the verb, if the conceptual content is linguistically expressed. The third conceptual entity in Talmy’s framework is the association function, which relates the figure to its spatial environment the association function is expressed in the preposition (P) of the linguistic expression. The last entity, the ground, is (part of) the spatial environment in respect to which the figure is either statically located or moving.

28-What many cognitive components are there in motion events?
There are 6 elements.These are PATH,FİGURE,GROUND,MOTİONMANNER and CAUSE.


29-What is external reality?
Situations which are only rarely are encountered referred to as “external reality and require more effort to be communicated in language both from the point of view of the speaker and the hearer than do situations which we encounter on a regular basis

30-YOUR model of communication?
The cognitive representation
system is divided into the lexicon, propositions, and discourse.
Communicative codes are divided into sensory-motor and grammatical
codes. Sensory-motor codes comprise phonetics, phonology, and
neurology, where the phonetic/phonological codes encode the
lexicon. Grammatical codes (which should in principle also be
encoded phonologically) encode discourse coherence, which is
equated with communicative intention

31-What can you say about conceptual metaphors?
I criticise that conceptual metaphors are identified out of context, whereas the
felicity of metaphors crucially depends on the serendipity of the context.In contrast,conceptual metaphors can be activated in discourse

32-What are the 3 kinds of memory in the three cognitive representation(semantics/lexicon,grammar and discourse)?

shared generic network (lexicon) = permanent semantic memory ,shared speech situation = working memory/attention and shared current text = early episodic memory

33-What is the pragmatics of empirical science?
I established it against deductivism and inductivism and is contextual,abductive reasoning(taken to be contextual)If you need an example for abductive reasoning,ask’an example on abductive reasoning.

34-What about your communicative mode?
They (monopropositional, pragmatic, and syntactic) which are integrated within Brown's model in that these three modes are considered to represent points on the continuum of phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and even possibly diachronic (with the transition from pidgins to creoles) communicative development.
35-what is your distinction between pragmatic mode and syntactic mode?
The learner’s acquisition involves a progression from a pragmatic to a synactic mode.

36--what is your pragmatic mode?
It includes topic-comment structures,loose conjuntion,slow rate of delivery,word order governed by one single principle:given info first,new info follows,prominent intonation-stress marks the focus of new info;topic intonation is less prominent.

37-What is your syntactic mode?
It includes subject-predicate structures,tight suborbination,fast rate of delivery,word order marks semantic case functions of topicality relationships.The intonation is similar to the intonation in his pragmatic mode.


38-What are the two major approaches in the evolutionary theory?
Two major approaches can be distinguished in the evolutionary theory: a gestural basis for the development of human language and a visual coding. The former,referring to animal communication on the one hand and sign language such as ASL on the other hand, the latter holds that "the earliest languages would certainly have resembled modern deaf sign languages

39-Which of these approaches is supported by YOU,G.Talmy
The visual orientation defended by me gets fundamental support from empirically sustained observations.

40-What are your beliefs in that approach?
I phrases it: it seems "plausible that the cognitive representation system that underlies human language has been recruited to language processing without major adjustments" The discovery of the gene FOXP2 and the mutations that have taken place, cosegregating with disorder in a family half of which has linguistic difficulties, suggests that the said gene has caused some fundamental changes on the human lineage. One of its consequences is a typical development toward human language, since the mutation did not occur among nonhuman primates. The authors venture that "the time when such a FOXP2 variant became fixed in the human population may be pertinent with regard to the evolution of human language

41-What is Directional motion ?
the conceptualization of a motion event can be analyzed as integrating a series of different conceptual components In its basic form, a motion event refers to a situation that implies movement in space and during a time interval e.g., The Pink Panther chased the little bird .However, Directional motion words (e.g. through) are usually employed to articulate non-motion domains such as that of abstract ideas where no actual motion occurs (e.g. Ideas were flying through my head so fast I could not keep up)

42-What are the fundamental components of a Directional motion event according to you,Talmy?
The fundamental components of a directional motion event, according to Talmy),
include a moving object (FIGURE), a reference object (GROUND), the fact of motion (MOTION) and its
direction (PATH).
In addition, I also identified manner and cause as two properties that provide us with
additional semantic information about the movement.


43-What kinds of challenges are the learners faced with while learning a second language

When learning a second language (L2), learners are faced with the challenge of having to learn appropriate word combinations from L2 input that in many cases are only implicitly available.This challenge becomes even more evident when the two languages differ on how semantic elements are represented at the sentence level. Learners have to reformulate their existing meaning-form patterns in order to incorporate other patterns that may respond to very different orders. We can attest that learners have incorporated the new L2 word combinations if they are successful at conveying their messages in a communicative situation.

43-Why did you study the lexicalization of motion?
I have studied the lexicalization of motion in my attempt to understand how the meaning-form relationship varies across languages. I wanted to demonstrate that speakers do not randomly generate frames; on the contrary, they respond to systematic patterns of each language.


44-How should the process of lexicalization be understood?

The process of lexicalization should be understood as the way meaning becomes incorporated into a given morpheme in language specific ways.

45-In your typological description, you showed that a semantic category like motion may be expressed in various lexico-syntactic sentence frames.As being an english language learner,I want to learn sentence frame in english,can you explain this,please?

. In effect, empirical evidence has demonstrated that in spontaneous descriptions of motion scenes, English speakers favour the use of intransitive verbs that conflate motion and manner or cause (e.g., The Pink Panther walked to the bridge, The Pink Panther ran to the river). Path, on the other hand, is expressed by particles that
accompany the verb (e.g., up, down, out) and leave information about the location (the ground) to be inferred .While this is a general tendency of English, note that speakers may also structure utterances with motion and path conflated in the main verb (e.g., The Pink Panther left the house). The lexicalization of the manner of motion is common in colloquial English, though in formal speech
speakers tend to use more path verbs such as ascend, descend, enter, cross, etc

46-What is your view about iconicity and markedness?
As regards iconicity and markedness I have a notion when
I discuss my so-called quantity principles. In fact my Quantity Principle B states that
“[l]ess predictable information will be given more coding information”. In other words, in the default case of the number to numerosity mapping, “one”
entity does not need any linguistic marker at all, whereas a group of entities require a marked
linguistic item, the plural marker. However, we have often also idiomatic exceptions of the
default case: The singular does not necessarily refer to “one” but “several” entities, and the
plural may refer to “one” entity. What is important in this
connection is that it is undeniable that it is “unpredictability” from the point of view of
grammar or the world that is inherently involved in idiomatic plurals.

47-What is epistemic scale?
That is a vast subject which can be explained more than many sentences so click on this site http://www.flet.keio.ac.jp/~colloq/articles/backnumb/Col_27_harada.pdf

Yurkie Ahmed Emurla
Fatma Özayyıldız

Anonymous said...

1-What is your thaory?
I haven't got a theory about language but I trained to explain language with linguistic researches

2-how can you define your area (View variations)
I’m widely regarded as the founder of the discipline of quantitative sociolinguistics and I pursue research in sociolinguistics ,language chance and dialectology. And I had contributions on emprical linguistics,made linguistic researches in real life

3-Who affected you mostly in linguistic area? (View variations)
Uriel Weinreich influenced me at Columbia University . Through Weinreich I was exposed to the most progressive wiev of language extant in classical linguistics.Its variability and chanceability across time,space,speakers,domains and contexts
4-What is language? (View variations)
Language is primarily an instrument of communication.Language is a system of transmitting information from one person to another. Change is the most important aspect of language but change interferes with communication.I searched it in social life

5-What is linguistics? (View variations)
Linguistics deals with the description of language as they are now,deals with their stay, how they come to be.It wanted to describe languages,like English or French but their methods brought them in contact with a few individuals,highly educated.
6-What is sociolinguistics? (View variations)
sociolinguistics is described as the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society,including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used.But I describe “Sociolinguistics” focusing on linguistic variation and change.
Sociolinguistics is a large and unformed area with many different ways of approaching the subject that aren’t necessarily linguistic,whereas the study of variation and change describes pretty well the enterprice we’re engaged in.
7-4 What was your first research? (View variations)
I famously recorded the change in pronunciation in a relatively short period in the American resort of Martha’s Vineyard and showed how this was the result of social tensions and processes.I noticed a peculiar way of pronouncing the words
8--How can you explain language chance? (View variations)
My approach is different from a structural-approach in the sense it does not aim at examining the structural way of language change; it is of less importance to me which sound changes into which sound,and the internal factors of language aren't mere.
9-What is phonological change? (View variations)
Martha’s Vineyard sound change was serving as a symbolic claim to local rights and privileges, and the more someone tried to exercise that claim, the stronger was the change. This became my M.A. essay,we can accept all these as phonological change.
10-4 What is linguistic interwievs? (View variations)
The sociolinguistic interwiev as we practice it today comes out of dialect,geography and dialectology.In the interwiev I found a lot emphasis upon individual words and asking people direct questions about language which come from dialect geography.
11-Can you give an example of linguistic interwievs? (View variations)
I took three major stores which were popular chains,a high-prestige store upper-middle class,a middle ranking store and the least prestigious.All stores give different answers of /r/ pronounciationSo language changes according to social class.
http://You can see all the details in http://www.spectrum.uni-bielefeld.de/~ttrippel/labov/node14.html#SECTION00032300000000000000
12-
What is social classes? (View variations)
It refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in socities or cultures.ın my research ın New York,ı examined whether the employees,working different part of the city can say fourth floor or not.ı focused on (r)sound.
13-What is quantitative study? (View variations)
We’ve introduced the use of acoustic phonetics into the study of everyday language, and linguistics has begun to make the slow move from a qualitative to a quantitative science.The variation across individuals,and across time, that seemed so chaotic.
http://http://www.spectrum.uni-bielefeld.de/~ttrippel/labov/node11.html#SECTION00032000000000000000
14-What is dialectology? (View variations)
Dialectology is a sub-field of linguistics,the scientific study of linguistic dialect.I have studies of dialectology differences in my New York City research and African American Vernacular research.
15-What is vernacular? (View variations)
I defined the “vernacular” as the form of language first acquired, perfectly learned, and used only among speakers of the same vernacular.And we can see phonological change ın different ancestry people cos of some reasons,maybe cos of social class
16-What is “Ebonics?” (View variations)
a portmanteau of "ebony" and "phonics".It was originally intended and sometimes used for the language of all people of African ancestry or for that of Black North American and West African people, emphasizing the African roots of the former.
17-What is standart english? (View variations)
Standard English is a term generally applied to a form of the English language that is thought to be normative for educated users.Standart language is mostly used in upper classes in a society but it is also used in the education system.
18-What is Social Identity? (View variations)
The term social identity can rafer to a wide range of social atttiributes, which will vary in importance from one society to another.Social class is more salient in Britain than in the USA Race is the owerhelming importance in the US.so it depends.
19-What is “dialect geography” (View variations)
he principles, practices and findings of dialect geography from the nineteenth century to the present. Computational organization of dialect data. The study of current dialect differentiation in American English and other areas.
20-What is narrative analyses? (View variations)
he study of the narrative as a linguistic structure, as a speech event, and as a technique for the transformation of reported events in conformity with cultural norms I have an article named “Some Further Steps In Narrative Analyses ıf you wonder.
http://http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~wlabov/sfs.html and http://books.google.com/books?hl=tr&lr=&id=qa4-dFqi6iMC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=+william+labov+quantitive+analysis+in+linguistics&ots=MnirNqLaEy&sig=D6CTVQfOz6NR2otD2qU01eSMoSw#PPR1,M1
21-4 How many chain shifts are there in America? (View variations)
Two .Northern Cities Shift and Southern Cities Shift.Also in this website http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas/ICSLP4.html#Heading1
22-What is researched based advocacy? (View variations)
just we make this research based advocacy for minority speech communities,ıam the first to study and revalorise minority and vernacular and vernacular speech forms.and for sake of thıs we searched so many mınority in New York.
23-What is the elucidation of linguistic structure in social and historical context? (View variations)
my studies of t/d deletion,auxiliary contraction,and others have been replicated many times and served as models for entire research traditions in New World.however,despite unwavering focus on the linguistics of spoken language contained elucudation
24-4 What is sociophonetics? (View variations)
The study of socially-conditioned phonetic variation in speech.In practice, the term tends to be adopted by people who are attempting to straddle both sociolinguistics and phonetics eıther by using reasonably sophisticated tecniques or benefits them
25-How do you define The Prestige as a factor of language change? (View variations)
After the interwievs of New York City schools I came up an idea that “language change is the result of the growing prestige of a certain accent while another accent loses prestige”.
http://More details in http://www.spectrum.uni-bielefeld.de/~ttrippel/labov/node15.html#SECTION00033000000000000000
26-What is causality? (View variations)
Causality is a very difficult concept;it doesn't really have any scientific basis because all we see is conjunction,just covariation,and correlations to indicate that two process are linked(southern and northen shift)
27-What are social classes in America? (View variations)
Upper Class,Upper Intermediate Class,Lower Middle Class,Lower Middle Class and Lower Class.They are secuented From high to low. Edit
Jan 4 What is causality? (View variations)

28-4 What is “The Social Stratification of New York City”? (View variations)
The methods I used to collect data for my study of the varieties of English spoken in New York City, published as The Social Stratification of English in New York City in1966, have been influential in social dialectology.
29-What are the Triggering Events in the southern shifts? (View variations)
ın the southern shift,triggering event was the monophthongization of /ay/.that was followed by the lowering of /ey/ towards the position of the /ay/.well those are such different operations,there's no way they can be subsumed into a single operation
30-What is social stratification? (View variations)
Social stratification is similar with social calsses.A community consist of different kind of classes and each class uses their own language in their social environmentYou can freely read my book in
http://http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=+william+labov+quantitive+analysis+in+linguistics&hl=tr&um=1&ie=UTF-8&oi=scholart
31-What is Optimally Theory? (View variations)
well optimally theory is quite attractive to us because it was a way of dealing with variation between languages but there has not been any consensus on the use of optimally theory for variation within a language.and it is not open to quantification
32-What is linguistic laboratory? (View variations)
It is a place people come to from here, there and everywhere to learn how to work with language in a scientific and realistic way.I established it in 1970 at the university of pennsylvania.
32-What is African American Vernacular English? (View variations)
It is also called Ebonics.The term "Ebonics," our main focus here, has been used to suggest that there is a language, or features of language, common to all people of African ancestry, whether they live in Africa, Brazil or the United States
33-What is African American Vernacular English? (View variations)
It is also called Ebonics.The term "Ebonics," our main focus here, has been used to suggest that there is a language, or features of language, common to all people of African ancestry, whether they live in Africa, Brazil or the United States.
34-What was the aim of the African American Vernacular research? (View variations)
We wanted to answer the question "Are the language differences between black and white children responsible for reading failure in the inner city schools?"
35-What is the Carribean creoles? (View variations)
caribbean creoles ıs a way of vernacular that spken between black,and ıt ıs saıd ıt ıs caribbean creoles and so we can say it is a vernacular ın African American vernacular.
my own approaches has been that linguists are very intelligent people,that if alot of them believe something,there must be a basis for this.so you had the creolists,people like Bill Stewart who were arguing that AAE was a creole lıke Carbbean creoles
36-What did you find in the African American Vernacular English research? (View variations)
Research shows that an essential step in learning to read is the mastery of the relation of sound to spelling.African American children Use thir dialect in reading so they got ffailure in reading standart english.You can see the details in
http://http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~wlabov/Papers/WRE.html
37-What can you say about probability matching? (View variations)
some commentators have found my variable rules inherently implausible,wondering how a speaker could control his production of a sound by refernce to running totals of alternative previous realizations.but ı show probability matching as an example.
38-How reading failure can be reversed? (View variations)
Yes of course it is possible .I wrote an article about this topic.It includes a summary of the linguistic features of AAVE, and puts forward a number of concrete suggestions on how educational programs can take this knowledge into account.Details are
http://http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas/RFR.html
39-What is speech community? (View variations)
It is acourse for students who plan to carry out research in the speech community. In the course all students learn how to cross the line that separates the university from the world around it.
40-What is emprical linguistics.? (View variations)
The question is “On what database do you form your conclusions?”. “How do you know when you are right or wrong?”So, I thought ıt was possible to move this field into a more scientific basis by grounding it on the use of language in everyday life.
41-Is there any influence of gender on the way we speak? (View variations)
of course ıt influences the way we speak,our social class,what city we are lıvınıng in.and actually it is a way of acceptance of morality view,ı mean ıt shows(your look to gender)your culture also.
42-What is chain shifts? (View variations)
A chain shift is a type of sound shift in which a group of sounds all change at about the same time, with some sounds taking the place of others. You will find more information and examples in these website
http://http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~wlabov/LHLC.ppt#287,23
43-What is Northern cities shift? (View variations)
The Northern cities vowel shift is a chain shift in the sounds of some vowels in the dialect region of American English known as the Inland North.
44-What is the future of Sociolinguistics? (View variations)
That is largely up to you.it seems likely that the large and diverse area called Sociolinguistics will continue to separate into several different disciplines, depending on its relation to the field of linguistics.
45-Can you tell me about your education life? (View variations)
You can see all my life in my homepage www.ling.upenn.edu
46-What are the most important books and articles of you? (View variations)
You can see all of them in my homepage http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~wlabov/WL.BIB.html and you can freely read most of them inhttp://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=+william+labov+quantitive+analysis+in+linguistics&hl=tr&um=1&ie=UTF-8&oi=scholart
47-What is your thaory? (View variations)
I haven't got a theory about language but I trained to explain language with linguistic researches

william labov
yeliz top 3212040013
sadriye no:13 ile bitiyor

Anonymous said...

3231050064
3231050090
KENNETH LEE PIKE
*when and where were you born?
KLP:I was born in 9 June 1912,in Woodsstock,Connecticut.

*what's linguist pilgrimage?
KLP:It's my life.

*Can you mention about your missionary background?
KLP:In 1935 I joined to Camp Wycliffe,a training program dedicated to translating the Bible into minority languages.

*What is SIL?
KLP:Being the sister organization of Camp Wycliffe,SIL International is a faith-based organization that studies, documents, and assists in developing the world’s lesser-known languages. SIL’s staff shares a Christian commitment to service, academic excellence, and professional engagement through literacy, linguistics, translation, and other academic disciplines. SIL makes its services available to all without regard to religious belief, political ideology, gender, race, or ethnic background.

*What’s your position in SIL?
KLP:I became president of SIL when it was founded,then assumed the title of president emeritus. Throughout my service, I acted as a field consultant in linguistic analysis to thousands of missionary linguists, conducting SIL workshops around the world.

*-Are you a missionary or a linguist?
KLP:I am a mule;a mule is part horse and donkey,combining traits of each.sometimes ı do the works of a horse,other times more of the work of a donkey,but i’m always both.

* What’s kalaba x?
KLP:Kalaba-X is a simple constructed language that helps the teaching of translation techniques. Each sentence in Kalaba-X has a fixed structure, consisting of three sentence parts: verb, object, subject.Under such definition, the grammatical structure of other languages can be more easily compared between each other, using Kalaba-X as a formal intermediate language for studying the language semantically.

*Can you give a brief explanation of your ’monolingual demonstrationts'?
KLP:A stranger speaking a language unknown to me would come onto a stage, and I--using a handful of simple props (some leaves, a stone, a piece of fruit) without an interpreter or the English language--would in less than an hour elicit examples of the language, write them down in phonetic transcription, analyze aspects of the phonological and grammatical systems,even speak a few phrases.

*What’s your major theoretical contribution to Linguistics?
KLP:It’s the development of tagmemics, an important theory in American linguistics until the paradigm shift toward Noam Chomsky's transformational grammar theory in the 1960s.

*What’s this ‘Tagmemics theory’?
KLP:It’s a theory of discourse founded upon certain principals about human language and behavior; an extension of concepts and methods used in phonology to the analysis of grammar. I can say that I’m the originator of Tagmemics.

*On what did you apply this theory?
KLP:It is a unit most suitable in describing languages such as the Central and South American languages to which it has more commonly been applied.And also I applied Tagmemics to the matrix of field theory and English rhetoric.

*Have you got any books on Tagmemics?
KLP:Yea,İt is further described in my "Language in Relation to A Unified Theory of the Structure of Human Behavior" publication.


*What’s your practical contribution to Linguistics?(or Can you mention about Mixtec alphabeth?)
KLP:When I went to live with the Mixtec people in southern Mexico in 1935,while working for SIL,I knew no Spanish, nor did the San Miguel Mixtecs. So I began learning their language monolingually, since there was no common language.I and my wife Evelyn gathered data, developed an alphabet, wrote phonological and grammatical descriptions of Mixtec, and translated the New Testament.

*What do you mean by tone languages?
KLP:While working on Mixtec;when I asked for the Mixtec numbers, it turned out that the "one" and "nine" were the same,differing only by pitch! That was a shock! Nor did I have any understanding of the nature of tone in any other languages.Sapir had told me how he'd analyzed the tones of Navajo;by applying his techniques,I was finally able to crack the Mixtec system.

*Do you have any book on Mixtec tones?(or What about your book called ‘Tone Languages’?)
KLP: Material from my study of Mixtec tones became the basis for my book Tone Languages.

*Your wife is a linguist,too?
KLP:Evelyn also studied at Camp Wycliffe and later taught phonetics and grammar, coauthoring several textbooks of mine and linguistic studies of Mexican languages.

*The terms ‘emics & etics’ were first introduced by you; can you explain them a bit?
KLP:Well,these terms refer to two perspectives in the observation and analysis of data.An "emic" account is a description of behavior or a belief in terms meaningful to the actor;that is, an emic account is culture-specific.An "etic" account is a description of a behavior or belief by an observer, in terms that can be applied to other cultures; that is, an etic account is culturally neutral.

*Can we say that they are the same as used in Phonetics an Phonemics?
KLP:Emic and etic are derived from the linguistic terms phonemic (the structural units of the sound system)and phonetic (the unanalyzed sounds used in a language) respectively;but I drew the etic/emic distinction from these terms,and extended it to social sciences.

*Did you give place to ‘emics & etics’ in any of your books?
KLP: I employed these terms in my book Talk, Thought, and Thing: The Emic Road toward Conscious Knowledge ;but it is a book related mostly to my philosophical considerations.

*-Can you mention about the content of your philosophical book;Talk, Thought and Thing: The Emic Road toward Conscious Knowledge?
KLP:It shows how a person can view knowledge at one moment as made up of isolated bits (particles); at another moment as life and change(wave); and at another moment as life made up of a system within systems(cohesion in a field). So knowledge turns out to be, in part, the recognition of pattern with pattern within patterns—up to the top of one’s hierarchy of belief about the world.

*What do you mean by matrix linguistics?
KLP:Matrix linguistics shows data in a structured chart of overlapping rows and columns in two dimensions.In addition, a basic system can be modified as a whole by some simple item which had to be integrated in an analysis with other components to find out the meaning of a particular cell. I've used matrix linguistics to suggest a possible handling of the reconstruction of historical material.

*What’s experimental syntax exactly?
KLP:By it,I meant taking a text, numbering the sentences, and then expressing the same material with the sentences in a different order. The implication was that once one had changed the order of the sentences, the grammar had to change, or else the meaning would be changed.

*Can you give an example for experimental syntax ?
KLP:Well, In many languages one is able to say,"John came home, he ate supper, he went to the movies," but in English one can change emphasis by saying, "John went to the movies after he came home." One can accomplish something of the same kind of impact in Papua New Guinea, however, without using the word "after" if one downplays the first clauses as follows: "Coming home and eating supper, he went to the movies."

*How did you begin to bring cultural or social materials into your approach?(or what’s your relation to anthropology and psychology as a linguist?)
KLP:when I asked what the language was itself distributed into, I did not want English distributed into English; eventually, I felt language had to be distributed into culture!This in turn pointed me not only to anthropology but to the psychology and eventually to an attempt to understand presuppositions of human behavior which are universal.

*If you could not be a tagmemicist, which other theory or theories would be attractive to you?(or Is there any linguist you are inspired by?)
KLP:Before I was a tagmemicist, I was interested in the work of Sapir in relation to his anthropology and the work of Bloomfield in relation to his important contributions on structure. Bloch was useful to me in understanding English vowel structure. In an attempt to comprehend Chomsky, I studied some mathematics to try to understand formalism, which is not my style but which I wanted to know more about.

* When the history of 20th-century linguistics is the written, what do you think your place in it will be?
KLP:The only concept of mine mentioned often is emics/etics. Perhaps this idea will survive as it insists on the relationship of the observer to the data, being against abstract science.I think, that the phoneme may be reborn;It would be fun if the word "emics" were to last somewhat like the term ‘sandhi’ from Sanskrit grammar.

*Knowing that it is impossible to predict, where do you see linguistic theory going for the remainder of the decade?
KLP:The discipline seems to be moving toward text analysis and cognitive components.

*Why is it that linguistics is not taught in high schools? If it were, how would that benefit the field as a whole?
KLP:linguistics is in fact taught in the high schools but not by that name.students study something about grammar (nominative, accusative, etc.) or subjects and predicate.I would hope that in classes on writing and on the analysis of literature more emphasis would be placed on textual structures from the viewpoint of some combination of linguistic theories. For teaching composition, specific mention of structural components such as particle, wave, and field might be helpful.

* You have written numerous books;if you were to pick only one which would you deem as your favorite?
KLP:I do not have just one book as favorite, because they are favorites for different purposes: Phonetics [1943] for universals of sounds, Language in Relation to a Unified Theory of the Structure of Human Behavior [1967] for leading toward a holistic view of culture, Talk, Thought, and Thing [1993] for trying to state simply my tying in of philosophy to linguistics.

* What advice would you give today's young graduate students in linguistics?
KLP:Try to understand something about all of the available theories in vogue and personalities in the discipline,I feel that if they could understand how,when and where a scholar started working and broke through to something useful, they could then have a better understanding of the complicated "present. "

Anonymous said...

norman fairclough
1-What’s your name?
Norman Fairclough
2-How old are you?
57
3-where did you work and in what position?
I no longer have a formal teaching programme, but I contribute to a course in Critical Discourse Analysis on the MA in British Cultural Studies in Bucharest, and teach intensive courses in CDA at doctoral level (most recently in Denmark) which are adapted to interdisciplinary social research, and are suitable for research students in a variety of social science disciplines and areas.
4-What’s your position now?
Emeritus Professor of linguistic at Lancaster University
5-What’s your terminology?
Awareness,sociolinguistics,pragmatics,cognitive psychology,artificial intelligence,verbal and visual language,orders of discourse,discourse and power,formality,common sense and ideology,coherence and inferencing,boundries,frames,scripts and schemata,appropriateness,knowledge-based economy
6-What’s your research interests?
Critical discourse analysis - including the place of language in social relations of power and ideology, and how language figures in processes of social change.
7-what’s your role for linguistics?
I’m one of the founders of critical discourse analysis, a branch of sociolinguistics or discourse analysis that looks at the influence of power relations on the content and structure of writings.
8-what are the main elements of your recent research?
Theoretical development of critical discourse analysis to enhance its capacity to contribute to this area of social research.
Developing approaches to linguistic analysis of texts and interactions which are adapted to social research
Application of this theory and method in researching aspects of contemporary social change

9-what about your current reasearch?
I am using in my current research, which is focused on aspects of social change – “transition” – in Central and Eastern Europe, especially Romania. This framework is centred upon critical discourse analysis, but it has an interdisciplinary character – or as I prefer to put it, “trans-disciplinary”.
10-what’s partnership governance?
discourses, narratives, legitimizations within strategies
dialectical relations between discourses, genres and styles
dialectical relations between discourse and other elements (including material elements) of governance
11-what’s social practice?
I mean a relatively stabilised form of social activity (examples would be classroom teaching, television news, family meals, medical consultations). Every practice is an articulation of diverse social elements within a relatively stable configuration, always including discourse
12-what’s order of discourse?
An order of discourse is a social structuring of semiotic difference – a particular social ordering of relationships amongst different ways of making meaning, different discourse and genres and styles.
13-What are your published books?
Language and Power, Discourse and Social Change, Critical Language Awareness ,Media Discourse Critical Discourse Analysis,Discourse in Late Modernity - Rethinking ,Critical Discourse Analysis,New Labour, New Language?, Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research,Language and Globalization,Discourse in Contemporary Social Change
14-what’s analysing discourse”?
One of my boks.
15-what’s ‘language and power’?
One of my books.
16-what’s your to writing ‘language and power’?
I have developed the concept of synthetic personalisation to account for the linguistic effects providing an appearance of direct concern and contact with the individual listener in mass-crafted discourse phenomena, such as advertising, marketing, and political or media discourse.
17-From whom do you influence?
Mikhail Bakhtin and Michael Halliday on the linguistic field, and ideology theorists such as Antonio Gramsci, Louis Althusser, Michel Foucault and Pierre Bourdieu on the sociological one.


18-How can you identify three central constructs of critical discourse analysis?
Text and teh study of texture
Discoursal practices and the consept orders of discourse
Sociocultural practices and the concept of culture
19-what do you think about language and ideology?
It suggest that the language ideology relation should be conceptualized within the framework of reseach on discoursal and sociocultural change.
20-whats the main headings of discourse as social practice?
Language and discourse
Discourse and orders of discourse
Class and power in capitalist society
Dialectic of structures and practices
21-whats the relationship between discourse and practice?
They are constrained not by various independent types of discourse and practise
But by interdependent Networks which we can call orders- orders of discourse and social orders.
22-what might we mean by ‘enterprise discourse’?
my primary objective will be to argue that notions like enterprise discourse ought not to be understood to rigitly and that enterprise discourse itself is a rather diffuse set of tendencies effecting the order of discourse of contemprory british society as part of wider tendencies of cultural change rather than a well defined code or formation.
23-what about the case of more abstact and diffuse aspects of social stuructures such as the relationship between social classes in a society?
Class relation also determine discourse (and social practice generally) on the one hand but are reproduced in discourse the other.but class relations and positions are not directly expressed and reproduce in most practice.
24-how do you explain discourse clearly?
I see discourses as ways of representing aspects of the world- the processes ,relations and structures of the metarial world, the mental world of thoughts ,feelings, beliefs and so forth, and social world.
Discourses can be differentiated in terms of semantic relations (synonymy,hyponymy,antonymy)between words- how they claasify parts of the world- as well collocations, assumptions and various grammatical features.
25-you have glossed the discourse view of language as language aas a form of social practice what precisely does this imply?
Firstly that language is a part of society and not somehow external to it.secondly that language is a social process. And thirdly that lang is a socially conditioned process,conditioned that is by other (non linguistic) parts of society.
26-what are the stages of critical discourse analysis?
Description:is the stage which is cencern with formal properties of the text.
Interpretation:is concern with the relationship between text and interaction e
Explanation: is concern with the relationship between interaction an social context with the social determination of the processes of production and interpretation and their social effects
27-what’s the text analysis issues of text,social events and social practices?
Main types of meaning: action represantation,identification
Genres discourses and styles
Genre chains and chains of text
İnter-discursive analysis
29-what’s the social research issues of texts, social events and social practices
Structure and agency
Social structures,social practices and social events
Dialectics of discourse
Globalization and new capitalism
Mediation
Recontextualization
Governance
Hybridity and post modernity
30-what’s the analysis of the internal relations of texts includes?
Semantic relations
Grammatical relations
Vocabulary(‘or lexical’) relations
Phonological relations
31-what’s the semantic relations?
Meaning relations between words and longer expressions,between elements of clauses, between clauses and sentences and over larger stretches of text.
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Anonymous said...

Linguist:ANDRé MARTINET
Most Important Work:Elements of General Linguistic

1) What did you find?
I was among the linguists who supported a functionalist approach to language rather than a formal one. Here function can be defined as „role or task“; i.e. language forms functioning as instruments of the speaker’s goals. Therefore, lang.

2) How does it differ from other theories?
The functionalist view sees language as instrumental. In the generative grammar put forth by Chomsky, though, the emphasis is on the structure and thus it is a rather formal approach.
3)What is Functional approach according to you?
Functionalism is a theory of the mind that claims to tell us the fundamental nature of our mental states. Your mental states include everything from your fear of heights to your belief that it is Tuesday, from your desire to eat an ice cream cone to the sharp pain in your leg. Fears, beliefs, desires, pains are all mental states. Your mental states include the cognitive processing that you are aware of because they are accompanied by subjective experiences, or "feelings", of some kind. But they also include the cognitive processing that you are not aware of, like the way your visual system turns simple two-dimensional line-drawings into a three-dimensional "world" (see, LINK TO VISION).

So, what does your desire for an ice cream cone and the pain in your leg have to do with thermostats and heating systems? Well, according to functionalism, the essential nature of your desires and your pains is not to be found in the stuff that your desires are composed of, but rather in the function that each performs. What kind of stuff is your pain made of? Are pains somehow made of molecules (i.e., physical stuff)? Or are they made of some kind of immaterial mental stuff. According to functionalism, we can describe the essential features of our mental states without mentioning what kind of stuff it is made of. We need only describe what goes into and what comes out of the black box. An account of a particular mental state, like pain, is complete when all of its functional properties have been identified. The stuff that is used to implement those functional properties is not an essential part of what mental states really are.

Now it must be said that virtually all contemporary functionalists are physicalists. That is, they believe that everything that exists is ultimately built out of physical stuff (molecules, etc.) as described by our best theories in physics. Being physicalists, they do not believe in the existence of immaterial, mental stuff. Further, even though a description of a mental state may not require any mention of the stuff of which it is made, it may, nonetheless, prove enormously helpful to carefully examine the stuff if you want to discover precisely what function the stuff performs. (That is, if you seek a thorough account of the causal role of pain in a particular organism, examining the activity of nerve endings and "pain centers" in the brain may provide relevant data.) Nonetheless, even though functionalists tend to be physicalists, they must concede that it is at least imaginable that pain could be realized in something other than molecules, just as we all must concede that a thermostat could be realized using something other than a mercury thermometer. Functional properties can always be (at least in principle) multiply realized.



3)There is something known as diachronic phonology on your theory,what is it?
It's a little long-term process to read that's why I'll give you a link:http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/bermudez/handbook.pdf

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Anonymous said...

Teun A.van Dijk
1)What is your full name?
My name is Teun Adrianus van Dijk.
2)When and where were you born?
I was born on May 7,1943 in Naaldwijk,the Netherlands.
3)What is your occupation?
I work at the Pompeu Fabra University,Barcelona as a Critical Discourse Analyst.
4)What is your field of study?
I am a scholar in the fields of text linguistics,discourse analysis and critical discourse analysis but I put weigh on critical discourse analysis(CDA).
5)How do you define and characterize discourse analysis or studies (DS)?
Contemporary Discourse Studies(DS) has many directions,approaches and sections,each defining the aim of DS in a different way.Summarizing and abstracting DS should be the systematic study of written and spoken discourse in their cognitive,social,political and cultural contexts.
6)Can you define Critical Discourse Analysis or Studies(CDA)?
Critical Discourse Analysis(CDA) is discourse studies like any other,using different methods,but with the overall aim to specifically focus on and criticize the abuse of power in and by any discourse.
7)What is important in Critical Discourse Analysis in general?
For Critical Discourse Analysis what counts is what theories and methods are usefull to study and resolve important social problem.
8)What is the focus of your Critical Discourse Analysis/Studies(CDA)?
My work in CDA focuses especially on the study of the discursive reproduction of racism by symbolic elites,the study of news in the press and on the theories of ideology and context.
9)What do you mean by “symbolic elites”?
I use this term to refer to politicians,journalists,scholars,writers,professors etc. who reproduce racism and prejudice.
10)What is cultural (contemporary) racism?
Cultural racism,also called the “new” racism is no longer based only on “racial appearance” such as skin colour,but also primarily on such cultural properties of groups as language,religion,customs and so on.
11)What is elite racism?
Elite racism is largely symbolic racism,that is,racism expressed in dominant discourse and images controlled by the elites,such as parlimentary debates,laws,news reports,ditorials,opinion articles,TV programmes,movies,textbooks and so on.
12)How does elite discourse influence the formation of prejudice and the reproduction of racism?
The crucial point here is power.Elites have the most power and hence most control over public discourse and therefore much more influence on the formation of prejudice and reproduction of racism than ordinary people.
13)Can you give examples of popular racism caused by “symbolic” elites?
Symbolic elites like politicians,writers,journalists etc exacerbated ethnic war in former Yugoslavia,in Rwanda and its radio broadcasts.The same was true in Nazi Germany with its propaganda.
14)How do elites affect the general attitude towards the minorities?
Elites are the ones who hire and fire,decide who may legally neter the country ,who has access to politics and the mass media..They control all decisive means of communication,interactions and organizations.Naturally,they can instill their ideology into the weaker part of the society.
15)How can elite racism be resisted?
First by resistance of minorities themselves as is the case with Civil Rights Movement in the USA.Second by resistance of a minority of anti racist elites and third by marshalling international solidarity as was the case against the Apartheid Regime in South Asia.
16)What is action?
Action is a change of state brougt about intentionally by a conscious humanbeing in order to bring about a preferred state or state change.
17)How does action differ from action discourse?
If a discourse’s respective sentences can be interpreted in terms of the optional or necessary sequential parts of actions as defined,it is an action discourse.
18)What are the components of the narrative theory?
A serious understanding of the nature of action,descriptions of circumstances, objects,properties or processes of agents.
19)What is theory of context?
The main thesis of this theory is that contexts are not,as was hitherto assumed some kind of social environment of talk and text but rather the interpretat.on by the participants of the ongoingly relevant dimensions of the social environment.
20)What is context space?
It is a notion which accounts for the intuition that a “span” of discourse may be about the same “central” persons and that tehre are differences between the centrality of the persons spoken about.
21)What is “Racism and Discourse”?
It is one of my projects which deals withe the influence of discourse on racism.
22)Do you have any other projects?
Yes,I have four additional projects titled “Critical Discourse Studies”,”Discourse Knowledge”,”Discourse and Ideology” and “Theory of Context”.
23)What is relevance?
Relevance refers to the result of an operation by which a reader,hearer,or a method of analysis,assigns some degree of importance to some property of discourse.
24)What are the aspects of relevance?
It would take pages to explain all of them.Local vs global relevance,intensional vs extentional relevance,textual vs contextual relevance are only some of them.Go to http://www.discourses .org/old articles/relevance for further information.
25)What is contextual relevance?
Contextual relevance is the assignment of a relevance value on the basis of any kind of contextual criterion,such as the interest,attention,knowledge,wishes etc. of the reader.
26)What is textual relevance?
Textual relevance is defined in terms of textual structures such that certain structures are assigned a higher degree of relevance than others on general structural ground.
27)What are the relevance signals in discourse?
The relevance signals in discourse are graphical,phonological,syntactical,lexical,semantic, pragmatic,schematic/superstructural and rhetorical.
28)What is semantic macrostructure?
Semantic macrostructures are the overall,global meanings of discourse usually alsodescribed in tems of topic,gist or upshot.
29)Can you give an example?
The headlines and lead of a news report or title and the abstract of a scholarly article,all of which include global meanings or topics can be given as examples of semantic macrostructures.
30)What is semantic microstructure?
Micro or local microstructures of words,clauses,sentences or turns in conversation are the more comprehensive and detailed structures.
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The rest of the questions have been uploaded to MycyberTwin.

Anonymous said...

can you explain deixis to me?
well, deixis are the terms used to refer to ourselves, to others, and to objects in our environment. Levinson classifies the deixis as; person, place, time, discourse, and social deixis.


can you define the pragmatic presupposition?
To presuppose is to assume something but not to say it. Let's put it this way; a speaker's asumptions about the speech context.

can you tell me what the speech act is?
A speech act is an act that a speaker performs when making an utterance. searle classifies the speech acts as; directives, commissives, representatives, declaratives and expressives.


How do you define the maxims of manner?
Avoid obscurity and unnecessary ambiguity,be briefly and orderly.


How do you define the maxims of relevance?
Being relevant covers the term of the maxim of relevance.


How do you define the maxims of quality?
do not say what you believe to be false and do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence. In other words, try to make your contribution one that is true.


How do you define the maxims of quantity?
well, make your contribution as informative as required, and do not make your contribution more informative than is required. Briefly, be informative.


can you tell me what the conversational maxims are?
sure, there are four types of conversational maxims; maxims of quantity, quality, manner and relevance


can you please tell me the steps of indirect communication?
Of course I can, my friend , contextual appropriateness and indirect step.


can you explain to me indirect communication?
"You are the boss!" of course you are not a boss (most probably), that's what the indirect communication is; to mean something more than what you directly mean.
sometimes when you speak you are not only performing some direct form of communication but also speaking indirectly - you mean something more than what you mean directly. that when you communicate indirectly.


can you list the steps of nonliteral communication?
yes i can,they are; contextual appropriateness and nonliteral step.


can you please explain to me the nonliteral communication?
sometimes when you speak, you do mean something other than what yours words mean. that is called nonliteral communication.
when what you mean to communicate is not compatible with what your expression literally means, then you are speaking nonliterally.
"Her eyes are open as wide as sauecers" is a nonliteral utterance, "Her eyes opened very wide" is literal utterance. I know you can seee the difference between these two sentences.


What are the steps of literal strategy?
the steps of literal strategy are; contextual appropriateness and literal step.


How does literal strategy function?
well, it enables the hearer to infer from what the speaker would be directly communicating, if speaking literally, to what the speaker is literally communicating.


How many steps are there in direct strategy?
four steps; utterance act, opeartive meaning, speaker reference,direct step.


can you define the direct and literal communication?
well, i'll try; when we communicate directly, we perform just one communicative act, and when we communicate literally what we say is compatible with what we mean, i hope this explanation helps you! :)


can you tell me what the functions of the inferential strategies are?
The inferential strategies provide communicants with short, effective patterns of inference from what someone utter to what that person might be trying to communicate.


can you tell me what the functions of the presumptions are?
Yes of course i can, what are the friends for :D ? The presumptions allow us to presume certain helpful things about the potential hearers ( or the speakers).


do you know anything about the inferential model?
it is the view that asserts linguistic communication is succesful when the hearer, upon hearing an expression, recognizes the speaker's communicative intention.


What is the message model based on?
It claims that if the hearer receives the speaker's message, the communication is successful.

do you know what the problems of message model are?
yes I do, it has six problems;the problem of ambiguity,underdetermination of reference, underdetemination of communicative intention, nonliterality, indireciton and noncommunicative acts.

Can you explain the pragmatics to me?
well of course, the term pragmatics cover the study of language use (in other words the study of linguistic communication) in relation to language structure and context of utterance.


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Anonymous said...

1)who are you?/ I am Henry Wıddowson
2)did you write any article? /of course,I have;ELT and EL Teacher,Proper Words in proper Places,The Ownership of English,EIL, ESL, EFL: global Issues and local Interests,EIL: squaring the Circles. A Reply,Communication and Community. The Pragmatics of ESP,The Theory and Practice of Critical Discourse Analysis

3)What is your terminology? /
Applied linguistics,psychology,multilingualism,CMC(computer-mediated cominication),discourse analysis,pragmatics,forensic linguistics,generative linguistics,theoretical linguistics,communicative language teaching,stylistics,global spread of english,
interaction,ALM,Notional-Functional syllabus,drills,bilingualism,communicative language teaching,clear thinking,speech act,turns-at-talk,linguistics,semiotics,sociolinguistics,gestures,syntax,lexicon, strategises
interaction,cognition,variation analysis,functional grammar,discursive psychology,acronyms,terminology

4)Which field are you an authority?
I am an authority in the field of applied linguistics and language teaching, specifically English language learning and teaching.


5)How do you explain language teaching?
Language education refers to the teaching and learning of a language. It can refer to improving a learner's native language; however, it is more commonly used with regard to second language acquisition, that is, the learning of a foreign or
second language, and that is the meaning that is treated in this article
6)How do you explain communicative language teaching?
The Communicative Approach often seems to be interpreted as: if the teacher understands the student we have good communication. What can happen though is that a teacher who is from the same region, understands the students when they make errors
The adapted communicative approach should be a simulation where the teacher pretends to understand only that what any regular speaker of the target language would, and should react accordingly.it has been seen as a response to Audio-Lingual Method
resulting from first language influence. Problem with this is that regular speakers of the target language can have great difficulty understanding them. This observation asks to rethink and adapt the communicative approach.

7)What is applied linguistics?
Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of study that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real life problems.

8)How would you sum up your philosophy?
Iam not sure about having a philosophy ¬ that sounds rather grand. I have a way of thinking about TESOL: that if it is to justify the name of a profession, then its practitioners have the responsibility to think critically about what they do.
. In my view, they need to be educated and not just trained, that is to say informed about theoretical ideas and research findings but not, emphatically not, simply to accept them as fact or on faith, but to subject them to careful appraisal so as
as to decide how far they are relevant to their own circumstances.

9)What, in your opinion, are the more conceptually flawed theories in general use today?
In language pedagogy, as every teacher knows, the primary consideration has to be how to make the language real for learners in the context of their classroom so that they can engage with it, appropriate it, learn from it. The essential point,
, I think, is that the English that is taught as a subject is not at all the same as the English that occurs in native speaker contexts. It is a foreign language, and it is this foreignness that is the reality that learners have to be guided to
to cope with. And English is foreign in different local ways in different countries and different classroom.

10)Harvard Graduate School of Education professor Howard Gardner is known for his theory on different kinds of intelligence, such as social intelligence, spatial intelligence. Do you have any thoughts on how this idea applies to language teaching?
It is obvious that people vary a good deal in the kind of thinking they find conducive. I am always amazed, for example, at the facility with which colleagues of mine do crossword puzzles that I find completely baffling, or represent ideas by means
of diagrams, which I cannot make head nor tail of. And of course I take comfort in the thought that they have a different kind of intelligence from mine ¬ different, but not, of course, superior. The difficulty is that certain kinds of intelligence
tend to be privileged over others in particular cultures and in particular traditions of education, and people who cannot demonstrate this approved way of thinking are then written off as failures, no matter how intelligent they might be in other way

11)Can you tell us a little about ‘stylistics’?
Generally speaking, stylistics is the study of the linguistic features of texts, the actual verbal texture of occurrences of language use and its effects. Originally the texts in question were literary, and stylistics was seen as an extension of
traditional work in literary criticism in that it linked interpretation to a more precise linguistic analysis of texture. These days, stylistics has extended its scope to include texts of all kinds, and has become more or less identified with
critical discourse analysis and is primarily concerned with revealing how linguistic features are indicative of underlying ideological significance.

12)You are credited with introducing the idea of Information Transfer back in the early 1970s.Can you tell us a bit about it?
This was a procedure that Patrick Allen and myself devised when we were developing ESP materials in Edinburgh in the early 1970s, which resulted in the English in Focus series. We noted that technical and scientific writing typically made use of
used as a prompt for developing abilities in English. Thus students could be asked to demonstrate their understanding of a verbal passage by means of a diagram, chart or whatever it is that.
visual devices like diagrams, graphs, charts and so on which supported and complemented the verbal text in various ways. It occurred to us that since these were an alternative and non-language specific means for conveying information, they could be

13)Have you found humour to be an important aspect of your work as a teacher?
would have more impact on teachers if it were more entertaining. You do not have to be solemn to be serious.
Amusement does not preclude serious thought. On the contrary, it can stimulate it, as satirical comedy makes clear. People are more likely to take note of things if they find them amusing, and I think that a lot of theoretical work in our field
Teaching is an interactive process which naturally depends very much on establishing rapport with learners, and humour can be a very effective way of doing this. Humour can also be effective in making ideas more accessible and more readily retained

14)The ELT Journal Web site mentions a ‘famous debate’ between yourself and Michael Swan. What was that about?
It was about the communicative approach to language teaching. Michael Swan had written two articles in the English Language Teaching Journal which I took objection to on the grounds that instead of evaluating the basic principles of the approach, he
simply reduced it to absurdity. Anybody interested can read our exchange in Currents of Change in English Language Teaching (OUP, 1990). Since then, Michael Swan and I have recognised that much of our disagreement was apparent rather than real, and
mellowed by age and friendship, we have either resolved our differences or have become reconciled to them.

15)How do you find living Vienna?
in the centre of town and find yourself in a wine tavern among vineyards half an hour later. Where else would one want to live?
I love living in Vienna. You can walk in streets untroubled by traffic, you can go almost anywhere safely by bicycle ¬ along the Danube as far as Bratislava if you are so inclined. And it is the only city in the world where you can get a tram in the

16)What is your implications for language teaching methodology?
, anything goes. Everything has the potential to provide noticing opportunities
Our role as teachers is to invite the learner to notice, and, ultimately, that is all we can do. My contention is that the ways we can do it include all the ways ever invented either to present or to activate language in classrooms. In other words,
I think the concept of ‘noticing’ is fundamental to all our principled behavior in the classroom.First coined by Schmidt (1986), it has been much-explored over the last 18 years.
What do you say about the tenets and fallacies of ELT?
authenticity can only be determined by insiders, only native speakers can teach it.
The notion of the native speaker is connected with the idea that only naturally occurring, or "authentic", language should be taught.

17)What do you say about the tenets and fallacies of ELT?
authenticity can only be determined by insiders, only native speakers can teach it.
The notion of the native speaker is connected with the idea that only naturally occurring, or "authentic", language should be taught.

18)namely that if this were the case, you would never he able to challenge such control" .
there is a fundamental contradiction in the idea that the language of itself exerts hegemonic control

19)what is applied linguistics?
Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of study that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics are education, linguistics, psychology,
anthropology, and sociology.Major branches of applied linguistics include bilingualism and multilingualism, computer-mediated communication or CMC, conversation analysis, language assessment, literacies, discourse analysis, language pedagogy,
sociolinguistics, second language acquisition, language planning and policies, pragmatics, forensic linguistics, and translation

20)what is anthropology?
anthropogy is the study of humanity. Anthropology has origins in the natural sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences.

21)what is linguistics?
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. Someone who engages in this study is called a linguist.

22)what is bilingualism?
Using or able to use two languages, especially with equal or nearly equal fluency

23)what about multilingualism?
The term multilingualism can refer to an occurrence regarding an individual speaker who uses two or more languages, a community of speakers where two or more languages are used, or between speakers of different languages

24)what is computer-mediated communication?
Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) can be defined broadly as any form of data exchange across two or more networked computers. More frequently, the term is narrowed to include only those communications that occur via computer-mediated formats
between two or more individuals. Research on CMC focuses largely on the social effects of different computer-supported communication technologies

25)cmc?
computer mediated communication

26)can you give examples? (View variations)
instant messages, e-mails, chat rooms and me cybertwin :) )

27)what is conversation analysis?
conversation analysis is the study of talk in interaction.generally attempts to describe the orderliness, structure and sequential patterns of interaction, whether this is institutional (in the school, doctor's surgery, courts or elsewhere)
or casual conversation. Thus, use of the term “conversation” to label this disciplinary movement is misleading if read in a colloquial sense, as many have.

28)what is language assessment?
language assessment is an educational tool used frequently with Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) to measure the basic linguistic and functional skills of an individual with developmental delays or disabilities.

29)what about applied behavior analysis?
Applied behavior analysis is the applied research of behavior from a natural science perspective

30)what is applied discourse analysis?
discourse analysis is a general term for a number of approaches to analyzing written, spoken or signed language use.The objects of discourse analysis—discourse, writing, talk, conversation, communicative event, etc.—are variously defined in terms of
coherent sequences of sentences, propositions, speech acts or turns-at-talk. Contrary to much of traditional linguistics, discourse analysts not only study language use 'beyond the sentence boundary', but also prefer to analyze
'naturally occurring' language use, and not invented examples.

31)what is speech act?
speech act as"illocutionary act" can be captured by emphasising that "by saying something, we do something", as when a minister joins two people in marriage saying, "I now pronounce you husband and wife."

32)what is illocutionary act?
illocutionary act is an act (1) for the performance of which I must make it clear to some other person that the act is performed (2) the performance of which involves the production of the things
e.g., rights, commitments, or obligations

33)what about turns-at-talk?
Turn-taking is one of the fundamental organizations of conversation.it consists of two components: the turn constructional component and the turn allocational component.The turn constructional component describes basic units out of which turns
are fashioned.Unit types include: lexical, clausal, phrasal, and sentential.The turn allocational component describes how turns are allocated among participants in a conversation. The three ordered options are
Current Speaker selects Next Speaker; Next Speaker Self-selects as Next; or Current Speaker Continues

34)what is language pedagogy?
The term generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction.is nowadays used in the English-speaking world to refer to the whole context of instruction, learning, and the actual operations involved therein, although both words
have roughly the same original meaning. In the English-speaking world the term pedagogy refers to the science or theory of educating

35)what are literacies?
literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. In modern contexts, the word refers to reading and writing at a level adequate for communication, or at a level that
lets one understand and communicate ideas in a literate society, so as to take part in that society.

36)what is sociolinguistics?
Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. Sociolinguistics overlaps to a considerable degree with pragmatics

37)what is pragmatics?
Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. The ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence

38)what is second language acquisition?
Second language acquisition is the process by which people learn languages in addition to their native language(s). The term second language is used to describe any language whose acquisition starts after early childhood
(including what may be the third or subsequent language learned). The language to be learned is often referred to as the "target language" or "L2", compared to the first language, "L1". Second language acquisition may be abbreviated "SLA", or L2A,
for "L2 acquisition".

39)what is acquisition?
it means gaining something

40)what is target language?
target language is a language that is the focus or end result of certain processes

41)what is forensic linguistics?
Forensic linguistics is the name given to a number of sub-disciplines within applied linguistics, and which relate to the interface between language, the law and crime

42)what is translation?
Translation is the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language (the "source text") and the production, in another language (the "target language"), of an equivalent text (the "target text," or "translation")
that communicates the same message.


43)what is generative linguistics?
is a school of thought within linguistics that makes use of the concept of a generative grammar.

44)what is critical discourse analysis?
it is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse, which views "language as a form of social practice and focuses on the ways social and political domination is reproduced by text and talk
Critical discourse analysis is founded on the idea that there is unequal access to linguistic and social resources, resources that are controlled institutionally. The patterns of access to discourse and communicative events is one essential element
for CDA


45)cda?
critical discourse analysis

46) what is global spread of english?
it is related to international english.nternational English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and also the movement towards an international standard for the language. It is also referred
to as Global English, World English, Common English, General English. Sometimes these terms refer simply to the array of varieties of English spoken throughout the world.

47)what is interaction?
Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal effect.

48)what is audio-lingual method?
it is a style of teaching used in teaching foreign languages.It is based on behaviorist ideology, which professes that certain traits of living things, and in this case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcement
—correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait would receive negative feedback.
the Audio-Lingual Method advised that students be taught a language directly, without using the students' native language to explain new words or grammar in the target language.

49)did you write any article?
of course,I have;ELT and EL Teacher,Proper Words in proper Places,The Ownership of English,EIL, ESL, EFL: global Issues and local Interests,EIL: squaring the Circles. A Reply
Communication and Community. The Pragmatics of ESP,The Theory and Practice of Critical Discourse Analysis


Nurcan ÖZÇELİK 3231050009
Özgül YANIT 3231050051
"Henry Widdowson"

Anonymous said...

sooy teacher yeliz top and sadriye forgot to give william labov's pasword and username in cybertwin

username:williamlabov
password:13

Anonymous said...

Key-Words For Our Linguist
"Herbert Paul Grice" :

* Meaning
Natural Meaning
Non-natural Meaning
Timeless Meaning

* Speaker Meaning
* Linguistic Meaning

Several of the interrelations between these two phenomena

* Literal Utterances
* Non-literal Utterances

* Pragmatics

* Cooperative Principle

* A Book " Studies In The Way Of Words "

* Utterer's Meaning And Intention

* Logic And Conversation

* Content
a) Encoded Content
b) Non-Encoded Content
c) Truth-Conditional Content
d) Non-Truth Conditional Content

* Implicatures
a) Conventional Implicature
b) Conversational Implicature
c) Utterances

* Conversational Maxims :
1) Maxim Of Quality : "Truth"
"Truth"
2) Maxim Of Quantity :
"Information"
3) Maxim Of Relation :
"Relevance"
4) Maxim Of Manner :
"Clarity"

* Philosophy Of Language
* Metaphysics
* Ethics
* The Study Of Aristotle And Kant
* Optimal

( This is the second time we send our key-words for our linguist as they were insufficient before. )


Meryem Simge Çengel 3231050074
Zehra TOK

Anonymous said...

The questions about theories of
Edward Sapir
Emrullah Kocataş 3231040022
Alican arslaner 3231050072

1) Who are you?
My name is Edward Sapir , then you?

2) Where are you from?
I m from USA , I live in Newyork; actually not originally ; I m from originally Lauenburg , Germany

3) When were you born?
I was born in 1884

4) Where were you born?
I was born in Germany to a Jewish family then I have emigrated to USA in 1889

5) What is your job?
I m a anthropologist-linguist I examine on language , the universality of language and the effect of language on thought. What do you deal with?

6) Do you know who whorf is?

Yes , he is my student ,not formally, with Harry Hoijer and Mary Haas. He examines on my ideas. Actually we are known mostly with Sapir Whorf hypothesis.

7) Which universities have you worked in?

I have examined on anthropology and linguistics in Chicago, Columbia and Yale Universities

8) what is language? can you explain your ideas about that?

We can define language is a cultural , not a biologically inherited, function. For example walking is an inherent , biological function of man. Not so language. it is of course true that in a certain sense the individual is predestined to talk but that is true entirely to the circumstance that he is born not merely in nature , but in the lap of a society that is certain , reasonably certain , to lead him to its traditions.

9) can you support your idea with examples?

Eliminate the society , there is every reason to believe that he will learn to walk but its is certain that he will never learn to talk , that is , communicate ideas according to the traditional system of a particular society.

10) what is speech?

Speech is not a simple activity that is carried on by one or more organs biologically adapted to the purpose. It is extremely complex and ever-shifting network of adjustments in the brain, in the nervous system and in the articulating auditory organs tending towards the desired end of communication.

11)How does you explain the elements of speech which is a complex activity?

We have one more than once referred to the elements of speech by which we understood , roughly speaking what are ordinarily words. We must now look more closely at these elements and acquaint ourselves with the stuff of language.

12)Can you explain the elements of speech with more concrete concepts?

If language is a structure and if the significant elements of language are the bricks of the structure, then the sounds of the speech can only be compared to the unformed and unburnt clay of which the bricks are fashioned.

13) what is the importance of the function in language?

There are cognitive, volitional, and emotional aspects of speech and feeling tones of words. The most important aspect of our interpersonal communication may be our wordless, sometimes unconscious body language read by others in social situations.

14) Can we talk about the similarities between the languages?

Languages influences each other due to cultural contact. There are borrowing of words, resistances to borrowings, phonetic modification of borrowed words. We can talk about phonetic interinfluencings of neighboring languages and morphological borrowings , resemblances as vestiges of genetic relationship.

15) can we talk about the international language?

Languages have many common features such as nouns, adverbs, adjectives. Every language have nouns , adjectives… There are borrowing of words, resistances to borrowings, phonetic modification of borrowed words. We can talk about phonetic interinfluencings of neighboring languages and morphological borrowings , resemblances as vestiges of genetic relationship. In these terms we can talk about an international language.

16) Do you believe the relationship between language and race,culture?

There is naïve tendency to consider linguistic , racial, and cultural groupings as congruent. Race and language need not correspond. Cultural and linguistic boundaries are not identical. There are coincidences between linguistic cleavages and those of language and culture due to historical , not intrinsic psychological causes. Language does not in any deep sense reflect culture.

17) What is the connection between language and literature?

Language is the material or medium of literature. Literature may move on the generalized linguistic plane or may be inseparable from specific linguistic conditions. Language can be defined as collective art. There are necessary esthetic advantages or limitations in any language. Style is conditioned by inherent features of the language.

18) What is universalism in terms of language?

the same thought can be expressed in a variety of ways. that we can say whatever we want to say in any language, and that whatever we say in one language can always be translated into another. That idea composes of the basis of universal language idea

19)What is the connection between thought and language?

The fact of the matter is that the ‘real world’ is to a large extent unconsciously built up on the language habits of the group ; language affects thought and real world. The characteristic features of language affect the way of thinking and life style and culture; namely thought.

20)What is the linguistic relativity and determinism?

Culture is shaped by language. The idea is the basis of the linguistic relativity. the functions of one's mind are determined by the nature of the language which one speaks. the functions of one's mind are determined by the nature of the language which one speaks." In simpler terms, the thoughts that we construct are based upon the language that we speak and the words that we use. In its strongest sense, linguistic determinism can be interpreted as meaning that language determines thought. In its weakest sense, language partially influences thought.

Anonymous said...

Edward sapir
emrullah kocataş 3231040022
Alican arslaner 3231050072
our keywords
language,speech and elements of speech,the interaction between Language,Language race,culture and language&literature, universalism and universal language, LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT ,

Anonymous said...

what are the examples of a formal system of differential elements?
examples of these elements includes the notion of the linguistic sign ,the signifier ,the signified ,and the refferent

what is Course in General Linguistics about?
its central notion is that language maybe analzed as a formal system of differentia elements,apart from the messy dialects of real-time production&comprehension

what is one of my important works ,published while a student ,and what is it known as now?
while a student ,I published an important work in Indo-European philology that proposed the existence of a classs of sounds in Proto-Indo-European called laryngeals, outlining what is now known as laryngeal theory


In Course in General Linguistics what did saussure focus on?
ı focus on not the use of language(parole.or speech). but rather on the underlying system of language(langue)


what is the name of the theory?
called semiology.

what has it been argued in Indo-European philology work?
my predictions about the existence of laryngeals and their evolutıon proved a resounding success when the Hittite texts were discovered

what is the signifier?
the sound pattern of aword.either in mental projection as when we silently recite lines from a poem to ourselves-or in actual.physically realization as part of a speech act)


what is the signified?
the concept or meaning of the word

what are the key notions in structural linguistics?
paradigm.syntagm.and value


what are the central tenets of structural linguistics?
two current thought emerged independently of each other ,one in European ,the other in American.the results of each incorporated the basic notions Saussurian thought in forming the central tenets of structural linguistics

what is the paradigm?
a class of linguistic units(lexemes.morphemes or even constructions.)

what is the meaning of langue?
la langue is one of the components of verbal language and it is the underlying system of conventions which exist in the collective mind of the linguistic community

what is value?
the different functional role of each of member of the paradigm is called value.


what is the meaning of parole?
la parole is one of the components of verbal language ,and it is the actual speaking of the language. what are the meanings of synchronic and diachronic?
the synchronic is a linguistic system existing at a particular point in time ,and the diachronic is a collection of linguistic elements changing over time.

which linguists did influence Saussure's Course between world war 1 and world war 2?
in America leonard bloomfield, in danimark louis hjelmsley in denmark and alf sommerfelt in norway.in france antonie meillet and emile benveniste and roman jakobson and nikolai trubetzkoy.

Does saussure's structralism focus on synchronic or diachronic?
sausssure's structralism focuses on the synchronic ,with an aim to examining signs within a self contained system.


what's the one of saussure's fundamental insights?
one of saussure' fundamental insights,then,was that sign-systems are arbitrary systems a set of agreed convention.,

what is the relationship between the paradigmatic ,and the syntagmatic?
the relationship between the paradigmatic and the syntagmatic is analogous to that between the syncronic and diachronic,in that the former is like a snapshot of related values,where the latter offers a trajectory where value is related to the squence

how can saussure support the idea that the value of signs is culture-specific?
the french mouton may have the same meaning as the english sheep,but it doesn'thave the same value.


saussure can support the ıdea that the value of science is culture-specific ,why?
because english has the terms mutton and sheep,a dinstiction which is not available in french
gamze savaş 3231050100 vahide tezcan 3231050006

Anonymous said...

our cybertwin's username :linguist password :hayef gamze savaş vahide tezcan linguist :ferdinand de saussure

Anonymous said...

norman fairclough username:norman
password:cimcime

Anonymous said...

SEVENTH GROUP LINGUISTS

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our CyberTwin about Swadesh Morris lives at
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our CyberTwin about Henry Sweet lives at
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our CyberTwin about Ferdinand De Saussure lives at
www.mycybertwin.com/linguist

our CyberTwin about all linguists we studied on lives at
www.mycybertwin.com/cyberlinguistic

by clicking the URL adresses,you can start chat with them.
have a nice chatting…
sincerely;
3231050039 İSA IŞIK
3231050027 KADİR GÜNGÖR

Ps: to reach the questions and answers,all,pls e-mail me and I’ll send them all in a .doc file.
My e-mail address is:
3231050039@mynet.com

Anonymous said...

3231050047
hulya soylemez
phonetics and phonology
1)what is phonetics?
phonetics is the study of physical sounds of human speech.It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds(phones) and the processes of their physicological production auditory reception, and neurophysicological perception.

2)what is phonology?
phonology is the study of the sound system of languages. It is a huge area of language theory.

3)what is the difference between phonology and phonetics?
In contrast to phonetics, phonology is the study of language-specific systems and patterns of sound and gesture. Phonetics deals with the physical properties of sounds themselves, not how they are meaningful.

4)what do you know about the history of phonetics?
phonetics studied as early as, 2500 years ago in ancient India with Panini's account of place and manner of articulation of consonents in his 5th cent.B.C. treatise on Sanskrits. the modern Indic alphabets today order their consonents according to Panini's classification.

5)Is there any relation between the phonology and other sciences?
Phonology is concerned with anatomy and physiology-the organs of speech and how we learn to use them. At another extreme, phonology shades into sociolinguistics as we consider social attitudes to features of sound such as accent and intonation.

6)what is articulatory phonetics?
Articulatory phonetics is a branch of phonetics which is largely based on the data provided by other sciences, among which the most important are human anatomy and physiology.

7)what is acoustic phonetics?
The branch of phonetics studies the physical parameters of speech sounds is called acoustic phonetics.

8)what is auditory phonetics?
If articulatory phonetics studies the way in which speech sounds are produced,auditory phonetics focuses on the perception of sounds or the way in which sounds are heard and interpreted.

9)are there any studies dealing with the pronounciation which people spoke centuries ago?
yes, there are. They are syncronic, historical or diachronic, comparative phonology.

10)what is diachronic phonology?
a linguistic approach that is interested in data that pertain to the evolution or changes in the pronounciation of a given language over a longer period of time belongs to the domain of historical or diachronic phonology.

11) what is syncronic phonology?
If a phonetician's approach focuses on aspects linked to the phonological system of a language at a given moment in its evolution that is his approach is sybcronic and can be subscribed to what is called syncronic phonology.

12)what is comparative phonology?
If a phonetician's analysis is interested in comparing phonetic features of different linguistic systems, the respective approach belongs to what is called comparative phonology.

13)who contributed to the development of the field of phonology?
Sanskrit grammarian Panini, Ferdinand de Saussure, Jan Baudoin de Courtenay, Nikolayi Trubetzkoy, Roman Jakobson, Noam Chomsky, Morris Halle Gunnar Fant, Geoffrey Pullum, Wolfgang U. Dresser, John Goldsmith, Alan Prince and Paul Smolensky, John Mccarthy.

14)what is the meaning of IPA?
Its meaning is the International Phonetic Alphabet.

15)what is the function of the Internatinal Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)?
It is a system of Phonetic notation based on the Latin Alphabet, deviced by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of the spoken language.

16)who use the International Phonetic Alphabet(IPA)?
IPA is used by linguists,speech pathologists and therapists,foreing language teachers and students,singers,actors,lexicographers and translators.

17)what is the history of the IPA?
In 1886 , a group of French and British language teacher led by French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known as The International Phonetic Association.

18)what is sound?
Sound is what can be perceived by a living organism through its sense of hearing. Physically , sound is vibrational mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a way.

19)what is stress?
When we talk about stress in a word or in more complex structures, we talk in fact about prominence, or more emphasis, that is parts of that word or structures are perceivedas having a higher degree of prominence.

20)what is rhythm?
Rhythm, as in music, is based on combinations of louder and weaker segments, strong beats which occur at regular intervals of time.

21)Can you give me some examples of approaches on phonology?
Autosegmental phonology, Generative phonology, Lexical phonology.

22)What is Autosegmental Phonology?
It is a non-linear approach to phonology that allows phonological processes, such as tone and vowel harmony, to be independent of and extend beyond individual consonents and vowels.

23)what is Generative Phonology?
It is a component of generative grammar that assigns the correct phonetic representations to utterances in such a way as to reflect a native speaker's internalized grammar.

24)what is Lexical Phonology?
It is an approach to phonology that accounts for the interactions of morphology and phonology in the word building process.

25)what is the Great Vowel Shift?
It refers to the 15th cent. change in pronounciation of long that occured in England. After Great Vowel Shift, vowel pronounciation shifted up one place. So, for example the "i" in Middle English had a long "e" sound ,as in the word "sweet". After the Great Vowel Shift, one sees the long "i"sound pronounced as it is currently pronounced, such as in the word "night".

26)what is the effect of Grimm Brothers on Phonology and Phonetics?
They left a significant legacy to the field of linguistics in their work regarding the First Germanic
Sound Shift, which established the concept of regular sound changes that became of basic tenet of modern comparartive and historical linguistics.

27)what are the theories on phonology?
Some of them are Natural Phonology Theory, Optimality Theory.

28)what is the Natural Theory?
In this view, phonology is based on a set of universal phonological processes which interact with one another; which ones are active and which are suppresses are language-specific.

29)what is syllables?
When you think of individual sounds, you may think of them in terms of syllables. These are units of phonological organization and smaller than words. Alternatively, think of them as units of rhythm.

30)what is segment?
A segment is a "discrete unit that can be identified in a stream of speech" according to professor Crystal. In English, the segments would correspond to vowel sounds and consonent sounds, say.

31)what is the accent?
Most human being adjust their speech to resemble that of those around them. Some identifiable groups of people share (with some individual variation) a collection of sounds that are not found elsewhere, and these are accents.

32)how many vowel types are there in English?
There are three types of vowel in English. Front vowels, central vowels, back vowels.

33)what is Dipthong?
Dipthongs are sounds that begin as one vowel and end as another, while gliding between them. For this reason, they are sometimes described as glide vowels.

34)what is Speech Perception?
It refers to the processes by which human are able to interpret and understand the sounds in language.

35)is there a relation between the Phonology and Phonetics and Speech Perception?
Yes, there is. Speech perception refers to the processes by which humans are able to interpret and understand the sounds used in language, so, the study of Speech Perception is closely linked to the fields of phonetics and phonology in linguistics.

36)what is parasody?
It is coming from Greek and refering roughly to the musicality of phonetic sequences.

38)how does speech generation works?
It consists of three steps; respiration, phonation, articulation.

39)what is respiration?
Lungs provides the energy source, this is respiration.

40)what is phonation?
Vocal folds convert the energy into audaible sound, this is phonation.

41)what is articulation?
Articulators transform the sound into intelligible speech, this is articulation.

42)what is allophone?
In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar speech sounds (phones) that belongs to the same phoneme.

43)what is palatography?
In order to understand how sounds are made, experimental procedures are often adapted. Palatography is one of the oldest instrumental phonetic techniques used to record data regarding articulators.

Anonymous said...

Ercan ÇAKIR 3231050019
İlhan TARAKCI 3231050011

---What is your full name?
-My name is Daniel Jurafsky

---Where were you born?
-I was born in Yonkers, New York; but ı grow up Los Altos in California

---What is your job?
-I am an associate in the Department of Linguistics, and by courtesy in the Department of Computer Science at Stanford University since 2004

---Were did you work firstly?
-I worked as a software angineer in UNIX operating systems

---What is the name of your book?
-Its name is ‘’Speech And Language Processing’’

---What is your aim about speech recognition?
-We tried to understand how to make speech recognition more robust to foreign accents

---How do you use the terms of natural language generation/natural language processing(NLP)?
-I and my friends work on many areas of natural language processing..
For example ‘’qustion answering’’ : our focus is an automatic detection of opinions for answering opinion question. Other one is ‘’Shallow Semantic Parsing’’: We work with a number of collaborators, beginning with Dan Gildea in his dissertation work, on automatic semantic parsing: assigning domain-independent semantic role labels (Agent, Patient, Instrument, etc) to input sentences.

---What do you think about speech synthesis?
-It is the artificial production of human speech. A major focus this year is our work on the automatic prediction of prosodic phenomena like pitch accents from text, and detection of pitch accents from speech, as well as the automatic detection of disfluencies.

--- What about morphology dear?
-It is one of the most important area in linguistics. Morphology studies about the internal structure of words. Moreover ; it has three fields:
‘’Morpheme-based morphology’’, which makes use of an Item-and-Arrangement approach.
‘’Lexeme-based morphology’’, which normally makes use of an Item-and-Process approach.
‘’Word-based morphology’’, which normally makes use of a Word-and-Paradigm approach.

---Why are you interested with semantics?
-We tried to find relation between signs and the things they refer to. I mean relation between the meaning and things.

---How can you compare the semantics with syntax?
-I can say that semantics contrasts with syntax, which is the study of the structure of sign systems (focusing on the form, not meaning). When analyzing languages, an analysis can be said to cover both the "syntax and semantics" concerning both the format and meanings of phrases in a language. The term semantics can apply not only to natural languages, such as English, German or Latin, but also to technical languages, such as a computer programming language

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What is I-language?

An I-language is internal in the sense of being part of a speaker's individual mental make-up.It is languages in intension, dressed in all of their grammatical robes,not simple concatentions of words,that are the proper objects of scientific interest Edit
Jan 4 What is phrase marker? (View variations)
In generative grammar, it is a representation in the form of a tree diagram or labeled brackets of the constituent structure of a sentence.
http://http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/Linguistics-and-Philosophy/24-900Spring-2005/3B3A5D45-6FD2-44C7-AE1A-03D9ADDC545C/0/24_900_synt_3_05.pdf Edit
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E-language is something external to individuals,either a social object constituted by norms and conventions,say,a set of sentences.It is regarded as so chaotic and subject to vicissutudes of everday life as to be a poor candidate for systematic study Edit
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Such sentences manifest a linguistic problem distinct from that posed by meaningful but ungrammatical sentences such as'Man the bit sandwich the' the meaning of which is clear but which no native speaker would accept as being well-formed. Edit
Jan 4 What is grammaticality? (View variations)
The intuition of a native speaker can define grammaticalness of a sentence.This is entirely distinct from the question of whether a sentence meaningful.A sentence can be both grammatical and meaningless:Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. Edit
Jan 4 What is performance? (View variations)
Performance refers to the specific utterances, including grammatical mistakes and non-linguistic features like hesistations, accompanying the use of language. Edit
Jan 4 What is competence? (View variations)
Competence refers to a speaker's knowledge of his language as manifest in his ability to produce and to understand a theoretically infinite number of sentences most of which he may have never seen or heard before. Edit
Jan 4 Can you give an example yo economy of derivation? (View variations)
An interpretable feature example is the plural on regular English nouns,dogs,which refers to several dogs,this inflection contributes to meaning,making it interpretable but in most sentences this inflection duplicates the information about number and Edit
Jan 4 What is economy of derivation? (View variations)
Economy of derivation is a principle that movements only occur in order to match interpretable features with uninterpretable features. Edit
Jan 4 What is economy of derivation? (View variations)
Economy of derivation is a principle that movements only occur in order to match interpretable features with uninterpretable features. Edit
Jan 4 What is economy of representation? (View variations)
Economy of representation is the principle that grammatical structures must exist for a purpose, i.e. the structure of a sentence should be no larger or more complex than required to satisfy constraints ungrammaticality. Edit
Jan 4 Can you give more information about minimalist program?
The assumption is that the derivation of sentences begins with a set of items drawn form th lexicon and the computational system than attempts to a pair of representations, one component of which is a phonetic form (PF) and the other logical form (LF Edit
Jan 4 What is minimalist program? (View variations)
The hypothesis of minimalist program is that the language faculty is a perfect device.Representation and derivations are infact as minimal as it is possible,given the constraints put on them by that they have to interact with the performce systems.
http://http://www.chomsky.info/bios/2004----.htm Edit
Jan 4 What is transformational component? (View variations)
It converts the deep structure of the sentence into its surface structure.In the sentences'The book will be read by the boy' and'The boy wil read the book' two surface structures are derived from one deep structure. Edit
Jan 4 What is base component?
The base component contains phrase structure rules and these with certain rules restricting which combinations of word are permissible so that we don't get nonsense sequences: 'The book will read the boy'determine the deep structure of each sentences Edit
Jan 4 What are the benefits of transformational rules in communication?
Transformational rules facilitate economy:we can simply say'I like her cooking' instead of 'I like it that she cooks in a certain way.T.R. also facilitate communication by enabling us to emphasize certain things at the expense of others. Edit
Jan 4 Can you give an example to transformational rules? (View variations)
You can find some tree diagrams that examplify transformational rules in this link http://www.chomsky.info/onchomsky/19720629.htm
http://http://www.chomsky.info/onchomsky/19720629.htm Edit
Jan 4 Can you give more information about transformational rules?
T.R. can show the similarity of the passive to the active mood.Instead of generating two unrelated phrase markers PSR we can construct a simplier grammar by showing how both active and passive can be derived from the same underlying phrase markers. Edit
Jan 4 What is transformational rules? (View variations)
Transformational rules transform phrase markers into other phrase markers by moving,by adding and by deleting elements.These rules apply to an element only in virtue of its position in a phrase marker.So T.rules apply after the PSR have been applied.
http://http://www.chomsky.info/onchomsky/19720629.htm Edit
Jan 4 Why do we need transformational rules besides phrase structure rules? (View variations)
Phrase structure rules don't describe ambiguities in a sentence such as 'ı like her cooking'.Surface similarities conceal underlying differences that can't be revealed by pharese structure rules so,surface differences conceal underlying similarities. Edit
Jan 3 What is the purpose of the tree diagram? (View variations)
It provide the description of the syntactical structure of sentences.I render phrase structure rules explicit and show their role in the derivations of the sentences. Edit
Jan 3 Can you give an example to phrase structure rules? (View variations)
The sentence'The boy will read the book'can be rewritten according to the phrase structure rules:S=NP+VP(by rule 1)/Art+N+VP(by rule 2)/Art+N+Aux+V+NP(by rule 3)/Art+N+Aux+V+Art+N=the+boy+will+read+the+book.This can be represented in a tree diagram. Edit
Jan 4 What are Phrase Sructure Rules?
A sentence(S)can consist of a noun phrase(NP)followed by a verb Phrase(VP). We can represent this in a rule of the form:S?NP+VP. Other rules will be : NP?Art+N / VP?Aux+V+NP
http://http://www.chomsky.info/onchomsky/19720629.htm Edit
Jan 3 What is phrase structure rules? (View variations)
Sentences are grouped into funtional constituents such as the subject,the predicate,the direct object and so on.Much of the speaker's knowledge of the internal structure of sentences can be represented with rules called Phrase-Structure Rules.
Phrase-structure rules are a way to describe a given language's syntax.They are used to break a natural language sentence down into its constituent parts namely phrasal categories and lexical categories. Edit
Jan 3 Can you give an example to surface structure and deep structure?
The sentences 'My father washed the car' and ' The car was washed by my father' have one deep meaning represented in two different surface structure.
The sentence 'I like her cooking' has several different deep meanings represented in one surface structure."I like her cooking" is for 'I like what she cooks', ' I like the way she cooks','I like the fact that she cooks' etc. Edit
Jan 3 What is surface structure? (View variations)
The surface structure faces out on the world and by certain phonological rules is converted into the sounds we hear. It determines sorund. Edit
Jan 3 What is deep structure? (View variations)
The deep structure faces inward toward the hazy region of conceptualization,it is the input to the semantica component and expresses the basic logical relations between nouns ans verbs. Edit
Jan 3 What is transformational grammar? (View variations)
TG makes it possible to predict the sentence combination in a language and to describe their structure.It relates meaning and sound and consists of a limited series of rules which transform deep structures into well-formed surface structures. Edit
Jan 3 Can you broaden the information you give about generative grammar?
In learning their native languages,children acquire specific rules.These rules interact with each other in complex ways and the entire system is learnt in a short time, without consious effort.This is the strongest evidence for the existence of UG Edit
Jan 3 Can you give more information about generative grammar?
In learning their native languages,children acquire specific rules.These rules interact with each other in complex ways and the entire system is learnt in a short time, without consious effort.This is the strongest evidence for the existence of UG. Edit
Jan 3 Could you explain generative grammar?
Generative grammar is the view that humans have an innate' language faculty' and that the universal principles of human language reflect instrinsic properties of this language faculty Edit
Jan 3 Generative grammar?
Generative grammar is the view that humans have an innate' language faculty' and that the universal principles of human language reflect instrinsic properties of this language faculty Edit
Jan 3 Could you tell about you generative grammar theory?
Generative grammar is the view that humans have an innate' language faculty' and that the universal principles of human language reflect instrinsic properties of this language faculty Edit
Jan 3 How can you explain genrative grammar?
Generative grammar is the view that humans have an innate' language faculty' and that the universal principles of human language reflect instrinsic properties of this language faculty Edit
Jan 4 What is generative grammar?
Generative grammar is the view that humans have an innate' language faculty' and that the universal principles of human language reflect instrinsic properties of this language faculty.
http://http://www.chomsky.info/books/mind01.htm Edit
Jan 3 Can you tell me your theory of language?
Transformational-Generative Grammar Edit
Jan 3 What is your theory of language?
Transformational-Generative Grammar Edit
Jan 3 What is your linguistic theory?
Transformational-Generative Grammar Edit
Jan 3 Can you give an example to parameters?
For example,in Italian subject pronouns can be omitted as in the sentence 'Va al cinema sta sera'(gos to the movies this evening) but in English use of subject pronouns is obligatory'She is going to the movies this evening'
Christopher is a good example. Although he is savant, he has learnt thirty languages by changing the parameters. Edit
Jan 3 Can you examplify parameters?
Christopher is a good example. Although he is savant, he has learnt thirty languages by changing the parameters.
For example, in Italian subject pronouns can be omitted as in the sentence 'Va al cinema sta sera'(gos to the movies this evening) but in English use of subject pronouns is obligatory'She is going to the movies this evening' Edit
Jan 3 Parameters?
Certain linguistics features that vary across languages are expressed through the concept of linguistic parameters.Parameters have limited values so they help children while learning a language offering a limited range of options to choose from Edit
Jan 3 Could you define parameters?
Certain linguistics features that vary across languages are expressed through the concept of linguistic parameters.Parameters have limited values so they help children while learning a language offering a limited range of options to choose from Edit
Jan 3 How can you explain parameters?
Certain linguistics features that vary across languages are expressed through the concept of linguistic parameters.Parameters have limited values so they help children while learning a language offering a limited range of options to choose from Edit
Jan 4 What is parameters?
Certain linguistics features that vary across languages are expressed through the concept of linguistic parameters.Parameters have limited values so they help children while learning a language offering a limited range of options to choose from.
http://http://www.chomsky.info/interviews/198311--.htm Edit
Jan 3 Principles?
Principles are a finite set of fundamental elements that are common to all languages and they are invarible, all languages have them. For example, a sentence must have a subject even if it isn't overtly pronounced. Edit
Jan 3 Can you explain principles?
Principles are a finite set of fundamental elements that are common to all languages and they are invarible, all languages have them. For example, a sentence must have a subject even if it isn't overtly pronounced. Edit
Jan 3 What do you mean by principles?
Principles are a finite set of fundamental elements that are common to all languages and they are invarible, all languages have them. For example, a sentence must have a subject even if it isn't overtly pronounced. Edit
Jan 4 What is principles?
Principles are a finite set of fundamental elements that are common to all languages and they are invarible, all languages have them. For example, a sentence must have a subject even if it isn't overtly pronounced.
http://http://www.chomsky.info/interviews/198311--.htm Edit
Jan 4 UG?
UG assumes that language consists of a set of abstract principles that characterize core grammars of all natural languages.In addition to principles that are invariable(all languages have them)are parameters that vary across languages
Universal grammar is a system of principles,conditions and rules of grammar shared by all languages which are innate to humans.It attempts to explain language acqusition in general,not describe specific languages.
http://http://www.chomsky.info/interviews/20051110.htm Edit
Jan 3 Universal Grammar?
Universal grammar is a system of principles,conditions and rules of grammar shared by all languages which are innate to humans.It attempts to explain language acqusition in general,not describe specific languages.
UG assumes that language consists of a set of abstract principles that characterize core grammars of all natural languages.In addition to principles that are invariable(all languages have them)are parameters that vary across languages Edit
Jan 3 How can you explain Universal Grammar?
Universal grammar is a system of principles,conditions and rules of grammar shared by all languages which are innate to humans.It attempts to explain language acqusition in general,not describe specific languages.
UG assumes that language consists of a set of abstract principles that characterize core grammars of all natural languages.In addition to principles that are invariable(all languages have them)are parameters that vary across languages Edit
Jan 3 Wat is the theory underlying UG?
Universal grammar is a system of principles,conditions and rules of grammar shared by all languages which are innate to humans.It attempts to explain language acqusition in general,not describe specific languages.
UG assumes that language consists of a set of abstract principles that characterize core grammars of all natural languages.In addition to principles that are invariable(all languages have them)are parameters that vary across languages Edit
Jan 3 Can you explain UG?
Universal grammar is a system of principles,conditions and rules of grammar shared by all languages which are innate to humans.It attempts to explain language acqusition in general,not describe specific languages.
UG assumes that language consists of a set of abstract principles that characterize core grammars of all natural languages.In addition to principles that are invariable(all languages have them)are parameters that vary across languages. Edit
Jan 4 What is universal grammar?
UG assumes that language consists of a set of abstract principles that characterize core grammars of all natural languages.In addition to principles that are invariable(all languages have them)are parameters that vary across languages.
Universal grammar is a system of principles,conditions and rules of grammar shared by all languages which are innate to humans.It attempts to explain language acqusition in general,not describe specific languages.
http://http://www.chomsky.info/interviews/20051110.htm Edit
Jan 3 Can you examplify this critical period hypothesis?
Genie is a example for this hypothesis.She wasn't exposed to any language input untill the age of 13 so,she couldn't activate her LAD.She could never master the language. Edit
Jan 3 Can you explain critical period?
Critical period implies that there is an age after which language can’t be totally acquired so, there is a need for interaction between biological and social aspects of language acquisition. Edit
Jan 3 Critical period?
Critical period implies that there is an age after which language can’t be totally acquired so, there is a need for interaction between biological and social aspects of language acquisition. Edit
Jan 3 How can you explain critical period?
Critical period implies that there is an age after which language can’t be totally acquired so, there is a need for interaction between biological and social aspects of language acquisition. Edit
Jan 3 What is critical period?
Critical period implies that there is an age after which language can’t be totally acquired so, there is a need for interaction between biological and social aspects of language acquisition. Edit
Jan 3 ) Can you explain language acquisition just by means of LAD?
LAD isn’t sufficent to explain all the process of language acquisition.Besides LAD,language acqusition is also triggered by the environment.Nevertheless LAD is thought to become unavailable after critical period when it isn't supported by environment Edit
Jan 3 How can you prove the existence of LAD?
The language-learning environment doesn’t provide information to the child concerning the well-formdness of an utterance.Think about this dialouge: C:I taked a cookie M:Oh, you mean you took a cookie C: Yes, that’s right, I taked it. Edit
Jan 3 you give an example which shows the inadequency of input?
The language-learning environment doesn’t provide information to the child concerning the well-formdness of an utterance.Think about this dialouge: C:I taked a cookie M:Oh, you mean you took a cookie C: Yes, that’s right, I taked it. Edit
Jan 3 How can you define LAD?
LAD is a pospulated organ of the brain supposed to function as a congenital device for learning symbolic language.Humans are born with innate facility for acquiring language as the acquisition takes place despite the limited linguistic data Edit
Jan 3 LAD?
LAD is a pospulated organ of the brain supposed to function as a congenital device for learning symbolic language.Humans are born with innate facility for acquiring language as the acquisition takes place despite the limited linguistic data Edit
Jan 3 What do you mean by LAD?
LAD is a pospulated organ of the brain supposed to function as a congenital device for learning symbolic language.Humans are born with innate facility for acquiring language as the acquisition takes place despite the limited linguistic data Edit
Jan 3 Can you explain LAD?
LAD is a pospulated organ of the brain supposed to function as a congenital device for learning symbolic language.Humans are born with innate facility for acquiring language as the acquisition takes place despite the limited linguistic data Edit
Jan 3 What is LAD(language acqusition device)?
LAD is a pospulated organ of the brain supposed to function as a congenital device for learning symbolic language.Humans are born with innate facility for acquiring language as the acquisition takes place despite the limited linguistic data. Edit
Jan 3 If it isn’t only input that enables children to learn language what is the actual factor?
Children can’t attain the complexities of adult grammar only with language input.Innate linguistic properties fill in where the input fails so,the brain must contain a program,LAD that can build unlimited set of sentences out of finite list of words Edit
Jan 3 What is language acquisition?
A strict stimulus-responsa mecanism can’t adeguetly account fort he way young children master language.I believe that the capacity to master grammatical structures is innate:that’s, it is genetically determined Edit
Jan 3 How can you explain language acquisition?
A strict stimulus-responsa mecanism can’t adeguetly account fort he way young children master language.I believe that the capacity to master grammatical structures is innate:that’s, it is genetically determined. Edit
Jan 3 3)If you think that language is a creative process how can you explain acquisition of language?
A strict stimulus-responsa mecanism can’t adeguetly account fort he way young children master language.I believe that the capacity to master grammatical structures is innate:that’s, it is genetically determined. Edit
Jan 3 What is creative process?
People are able to create sentences they’ve never heard before.They can build unlimited set of sentences out of a finite list of words.So,a language can’t be explained in emprical terms,it must be sth deeper that makes infine set of senteces possible Edit
Jan 3 How can you define creative process?
People are able to create sentences they’ve never heard before.They can build unlimited set of sentences out of a finite list of words.So,a language can’t be explained in emprical terms,it must be sth deeper that makes infine set of senteces possible Edit
Jan 3 2)What do you mean by creative process?
People are able to create sentences they’ve never heard before.They can build unlimited set of sentences out of a finite list of words.So,a language can’t be explained in emprical terms,it must be sth deeper that makes infine set of senteces possible Edit
Jan 2 Can you explain your view of language?
Language is a creative process, a process of production and interpretation. Edit
Jan 2 How can you explain your view of language?
Language is a creative process, a process of production and interpretation. Edit
Jan 2 What is your view of language?
Language is a creative process, a process of production and interpretation. Edit
Jan 2 hi
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